Dietary Inclusion of Fermented Parkia in Feeds as an Organic Strategy to Improve Feed Quality and Antioxidant Parameters of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fingerlings

Main Article Content

J. Abafi
M. Aliyu-Paiko
K. M. Adamu
M. A. King

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess fermented parkia infusion in feed as organic strategy to improve feed quality and immune system of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria, between 1st January 2017 and 25th March 2017.

Methodology: In the present study, feed ingredients were fermented for 72 hrs with probiotic starter culture from Parkia biglobosa (TF diet) in comparison to a control diet with similar ingredients to the experimental diets but totally unfermented (CF diet) and used to make feed pellets. The experimental feeds were fed at 5% of body weight of each dietary treatment to triplicate groups of 20 fish per tank (100 Liter capacity), two times daily for 10 weeks. Proximate composition and mineral content of diets and whole fish, Feed efficiency, growth performance and Biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated.

Results: The result of proximate compositions of experimental diets revealed a significantly higher protein and ash contents in TF compared to the CF. Carbohydrate content was significantly lower in TF diet while crude fibre, moisture and fat contents were not significantly higher in CF compared to TF. The highest values of some minerals such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) were also recorded in the TF while the least was recorded in CF. The result of feed efficiency and growth performance indicated similar feed acceptance and intake between fish fed the fermented diet and the control. The activities of serum antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in serum of fish fed TF compared to that in fish fed CF diet.

Conclusion: It can be deduced from this study that the fermented diet improved the immunity of fish and does not adversely affect the growth performance.

Keywords:
Functional feeds, probiotics, Clarias gariepinus

Article Details

How to Cite
Abafi, J., Aliyu-Paiko, M., Adamu, K., & King, M. (2019). Dietary Inclusion of Fermented Parkia in Feeds as an Organic Strategy to Improve Feed Quality and Antioxidant Parameters of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fingerlings. Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, 5(3), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i330059
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ayinla OA. Aquaculture development and appropriate enterprise combination in the BRACED States. In the High Level Meeting of Experts and the Meeting of BRACED States Commissioners for Agriculture. Songhai Farms, Port -Harcourt. 2012;2:1-41.

Wang Y, Xu N, Xi A, Ahmed Z, Zhang B, Bai X. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 isolated from Tibet kefir on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of srats fed on high-cholesterol diet. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;84:341–347.

Fazio F, Marafioti S, Torre A, Sanfilippo M, Panzera M, Faggio C. Haematological and serum protein profiles of Mugil cephalus: effect of two different habitat. Ichthyological Research. 2013;60:36–42.

EDR. Analysis of fish feed market in Delta State. Economic Development Research No 7. PIND Foundation. 2014;63.

Abd El-Rhman AMA, Khattab YA, Shalaby AM. Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas species as probiotics for promoting the growth performance and health of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish Shell Fish Immuol. 2009;27:175-180.

Nayak SK, Swain P, Mukherjee SC. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic and vitamin C on the immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:892-896.

Pereira LF, Gonçalves AF, Domingues MD, Peixoto S, Braga K, Sansuwan G, et al. Growth performance, antioxidant and innate immune responses in European seabass fed probiotic supplemented diet at three rearing temperatures. Frontiers in Marine Science Journal; 2004.

Llewellyn MS, Boutin S, Hoseinifar SH, Derome N. Teleost microbiomes: The state of the art in their characterization, manipulation and importance in aquaculture and fisheries. Front. Microbiol. 2014;5:207.
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00207

Ramírez C, Romero J. Fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) microbiome showed important differences between wild and reared specimens. Front. Microbiol. 2017;8:271.

Hovda MB, Lunestad BT, Fontanillas R, Jan Thomas Rosnes JT. Molecular characterisation of the intestinal microbiota of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture. 2007;272:581-588.

Ringø E, Sperstad S, Myklebust R, Refstie S, Krogdahl A. Characterisation of the microbiota associated with intestine of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.): The effect of fish meal, standard soybean meal and a bioprocessed soybean meal. Aquaculture. 2006;261:829-841.

Odunfa SA, Oyewole OB. Identification of Bacillus species from Iru, a fermented African locust bean product. J. Basic Microbiol. 1986;26:101-108.

AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official method of analysis. 17th Edn, Gaithersburg, USA; 1990.

Argungu LA, Mohammad SNA, Abu-Naim BB, Roushon A, Aminur-Rahman M, Arshad A, Aliyu-Paiko M. Biochemical and haematological profile of Malaysian snakehead, Channa striatus (Bloch). Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2017;13(1):12-17.

Misra HP, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. Journal of Biology Chemistrty. 1972;247(10):3170-5.

Beers RF, Sizer IW. A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. Journal of Biology Chemistry. 1952;195(1):133- 40.

Hasler CM. Functional foods: Benefits, concerns and challenges—a position paper from the American Council on Science and Health. J. Nutr. 2002;132: 3772–3781.

Aworh OC. The role of traditional food processing technologies in national development: The West African experience. International Union of Food Science & Technology. 2008;1-18.

Ray RC, Sivakumar PS. Traditional and novel fermented foods and beverages from tropical root and tuber crops. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2009;44:1073–1087.

Qayyum MMN, Butt MS, Anjum FM, Nawaz H. Composition analysis of some selected legumes for protein isolates recovery. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 2012;22: 1156–1162.

Jonathan SG, Fadahunsi IF, Garuba EO. Fermentation studies during the production of “iru‟ from bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranea l. Thours), an indigenous condiment from South-Western Nigeria. EJEAFChe. 2011;10(1):1829-1836.

Luo J, Goetsch AL, Nsahlai IV, Sahlu T, Ferrell CL, Owens FN, Galyean ML, Moore JE, Johnson ZB. Metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance and gain of growing goats. Small Ruminant Research. 2004b;53(3):309-326.

Bakke AM, Glover C, Krogdahl A. Feeding, digestion and absorption of nutrients. In Multifunctional Gut of Fish. 2010;30:57-110.

Montero D, Basurco B, Nengas I, Alexis M, Izquierdo M. CIHEAM, Zaragoza, Spain. 2005;73-90.

Degani G. The effect of different protein level and temperature and feed utilization, growth and body composition of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Aquaculture. 1989;76:293-301.

Abdel-Tawwab M, Khattab YAE, Ahmed MH, Shabby AME. Compensatory growth, feed utilization, whole body composition and haematological changes in starved juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). Journal of Applied Aquaculture. 2006;18(3):17-36.

Jasim UM, Haque KZ, Jasimuddin KM, Mehedi-Hasan KM. Dynamics of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen-a review. Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science. 2015;2(5).

Boateng M, BOkai OB, Frimpong YO, Asabere CO. A comparative study of the nutritional and microbial profiles of the raw and processed seeds of the African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa). Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2004;26:178.

Nitschke M, Pastore GM. Production and properties of a surfactant obtained from Bacillus subtilis grown on cassava wastewater. Bioresource Technology. 2006;97(2):336-341.

Oladele EP, Oshodi AA. Effect of fermentation on some chemical and nutritive properties of Berlandier nettle spurge (Jatropha cathartica) and physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) seeds. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2008;7:292-296.

Hemre GI, Sandnes K, Lie O, Torrissen O, Waagbo R. Carbohydrate nutrition in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: Growth and feed utilization. Aquac. Res. 1995;26: 149–154.

Erfanullah JAK. Growth rate, feed conversion, and body composition of Catla catla, Lbeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala fry fed diets of various carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios. J. World Aqua- cult. Soc. 1998;29: 84–91.

Nguyen TN. Total sulfur amino acid requirement and its application to practical diets for juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). PhD Dissertation. Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 2007;11(3):123-127.

Vakili AR, Khorrami B, Danesh MM, Parand E. The effects of thyme and cinnamon essential oils on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein calves consuming high concentrate diet. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 2013;26(7):935-944.

Modupe EO, Abiodun JO, Adesola AA. The effect of different starter cultures on the protein content in fermented African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology. 2016;5(4):249-253. ISSN: 2278-0181.

Ng WK. Palm oil in salmoind feeds. Aqua feeds: Fermentation and beyond. 2004;1:7-9.

David D, Kuhn MH, Schwarz SC. Understanding fish nutrition, feeds and feeding; 2017.

Sotelo R, Sofowora A, Index EEIJ. Medicinal plant and traditional medicine in African. Spectrum Book Ltd, Nigeria. 2007;25.

Kadam PS, Kale RV, Hashmi SI. Effect of different varieties of date Palm Paste incorporation on quality characteristics of yoghurt. Research Journal of Diary Science. 2010;4(2):12-17.

Jokotagba OA, Onasanya SS. The impact of fermentation on the proximate and mineral composition of Phoenix dactylifera L flour. Covenant Journal of Physical and Life Sciences. 2015;3(1):9-14.

Nout MJR, Ngoddy PO. Technological aspects of preparing affordable fermented complementary foods. Food Control. 1997;8:279-287.

Niba AT, Beal JD, Kudi AC, Brooks PH. Potential of bacterial fermentation as a biosafe method of improving feeds for pigs and poultry. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(9):1758-1767.

Eka OU. Effect of fermentation on the nutrient status locust beans. Food Chem. 1980;5:305-308.

Adams MR. Topical aspects of fermented foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 1990;8:140-144.

Jiang J, Lu S, Zhang H, Liu G, Lin K, Huang W, Luo R, et al. Dietary intake of human essential elements from a total diet study in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. J Food Compos Anal. 2015;39:1-7.

Lara-Flores M, Olvera-Novoa MA, Guzman-Mendez BE, Lopez-Madrid W. Use of the bacteria Streptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as growth promoters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture. 2003;216:193-201.

De Schrijver R, Ollevier F. Protein diges on in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and effects of dietary administration of Vibrio proteoly cus. Aquaculture. 2000;186: 107-116.

Li P, Galtin DM III. Evaluation of the prebiotic GroBiotic-A and brewers yeast as dietary supplements for sub-adult hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) to Streptococcus iniae infection. Aquaculture. 2005;231:445-456.

Adamu KM, Ikomi RB, Paiko-Aliyu M. The use of growth and biochemical indices to evaluate the interchangeability of some plant crude proteins in fishmeal in the diet of hybrid catfish. Development Journal of Science and Technology Research. 2015;4(2):13-23.

Ai Q, Xu H, Mai K, Xu W, Wang J, Zhang W. Effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance, survival, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Aquaculture. 2011;317:155-161.

Lamari F, Castex M, Larcher T, Ledevin M, Mazurais D, Bakhrouf A, Gatesoupe FJ. Comparison of the effects of the dietary addition of two lactic acid bacteria on the development and conformation of sea bass larvae, Dicentrarchus labrax, and the influence on associated microbiota. Aquaculture. 2013;376–379.

Zlatica K, Jolana K. Fermentation of cereals for specific purpose. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2007;46(2): 51-57.

Hassaan MS, Wafa MA, Soltan MA, Goda AS, Mogheth NMA. Effect of dietary organic salts on growth, nutrient digestibility, mineral absorption and some biochemical indices of Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus L. fingerlings. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2014;29:47- 55.

Ringø E, Gatesoupe FJ. Lactic acid bacteria in fish: A review. Aquaculture. 198;160:177-203.

Zhang D, Pridgeon JW, Klesius PH. Vaccination of channel catfish with extracellular products of Aeromonas hydrophila provides protection against infection by the pathogen. Fish Shellfish Immunology. 2013;2:1-15.

Ighodaro OM, Akinloye OA. First line defence antiodixants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione perodixase (GPX): Their fundamental role in the entire antioxidant defence grid. Alexandria Journal of Medicine.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajme.2017.09.001

Timbrel J. Principles of biochemical toxicology. 3rd Edition. Taylor and Francis. 2000;394.

Misra CK, Das BK, Mukherjee SC, Pattnaik P. Effect of multiple injections of ß -glucan on non-specific immune response and disease resistance in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;20:305-319.

Salinas I, Diaz-Rosales P, Cuesta A. Effect of heat-inactivated fish and nonfish derived probiotics on the innate immune parameters of a teleost fish (Sparus auratus L.). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006;111:279–286.

Jandhyala SM, Talukdar R, Subramanyam C, Vuyyuru H, Sasikala M, Reddy DN. Role of the normal gut microbiota. World J. Gastroenterol. 2015;21(29):8836-8847.

Wu HJ, Wu E. The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. Gut Microbes Journals. 2012;3(1):4-14.

Rahman MA. Biochemical composition of some small indigenous fresh water fishes from the river Mouri, Khulna, Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007;10(9):1559-1561.