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Balanites aegyptiaca has been used in many traditional treatments of microbial infections. This work was carried out with the aim of determining the phytochemical compounds present in the ethanolic extracts of the root, stem and leaves of Balanites aegyptiaca and their effects against selected microorganisms. Phytochemical screening was undertaken to determine presence of secondary metabolites in the stem-bark, roots and leaves of the test plant. Well diffusion method was used to determine sensitivity of test organisms to the test plant. Result indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and anthraquinones, although anthraquinones were absent in ethanolic extracts of root and stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca but present in the ethanolic extract of the leaf. Antibacterial effects were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results obtained from the ethanolic extract of the root stem and leaves showed significant zones of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus at all concentrations of 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml and 6.125 mg/ml. The positive control performed better than the extracts in terms of zone of inhibition. The results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) indicated that the leaf ethanolic extract had the greatest activity against K. pneumoniae with MIC value of 12.5 mg/ml, while the results from the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) showed that the leaf ethanolic extract had the greatest activity against K. pneumoniae with an MBC value of 12.5 mg/ml.
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