Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian&nbsp;Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology (2457-0125)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJB2T/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology) (Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology) Fri, 09 Aug 2019 09:07:27 +0000 OJS 60 Quality Evaluation of Ogi from Acha (Digitaria exilis), Soybean (Glycine max) and Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Composite Flour <p><em>Ogi</em> was produced from composite flour of fermented Acha, roasted Soybean and Carrot.&nbsp; The raw materials were blended in varying proportions. Proximate composition, functional properties and sensory characteristics of the formulated <em>Ogi</em> samples were evaluated. The results of the proximate composition showed a significant increase in moisture (5.36% to 9.94%), protein (3.94% to 16.98%), fat (1.89% to 10.23%), crude fiber (1.80% to 3.12%) and ash (0.35% to 0.99%); while a decrease was observed in carbohydrate (86.66% to 58.74%) with increase in supplementation with roasted Soybean flour and constant addition of carrot flour along with the milk flavor. The functional properties showed significant increase in foam capacity (5.99% to 7.97%), Swelling index (2.46 v/v to 3.08 v/v) and Least gelation capacity (8.10% to 14.0%); while a decrease was observed in bulk density (0.84 g/mL to 0.72 g/mL), water absorption capacity (1.40% to 1.10%) and foaming stability (3.39% to 2.79%). Sensory characteristics result revealed that there was no significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in aroma and overall acceptability with increasing incorporation of roasted Soybean flour and constant addition of Carrot flour with milk flavor. Aside the control sample (containing 100% fermented Acha flour) there was preference for Sample C (70% fermented Acha flour: 15% roasted Soybean flour: 10% Carrot flour: 5% Milk flavor) and Sample D (60% fermented Acha flour: 25% roasted Soybean flour: 10% `Carrot flour: 5% Milk flavor) in terms of color (6.65 and 6.25), taste (6.95 and 6.35), aroma (6.45 and 6.30), mouth feel (6.10 and 6.35) and overall acceptability (6.50 and 6.50) respectively, among the blend formulations. Supplementation of fermented Acha with roasted Soybean and Carrot flour considerably increased the protein and fat contents of the blend; hence Soybean should be used for supplementation of cereal based product in order to improve their nutritional composition.</p> Moses Terkula Ukeyima, Israel Okpunyi Acham, Comfort Temitope Awojide ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 09 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Computational Molecular Analysis of the 5 Candidate Genes of Suidae Family Related to African Swine Fever Occurrence <p>Suidae family consisting, domestic pig, warthog and babyrousa are identified with even hooves and snout nose. They have been reported to be tolerant to African swine fever virus (ASFV) with the exception of the domestic pig. Domestic pig is valuable for humans as a source of protein all over the world, but is more susceptible to this disease. ASFV has been found in warthog and bush pig. Five candidate genes, RELA, PPP3CB, PPIA, NFKBIA, and NFATC1 have been suggested to be responsible for the genetic variation between the components of Suidae family, which may contribute to the species-specific responses to ASFV infection. This study aims to investigate the evolution, differentiation and functional function of these five genes in three species of Suidae family that are either susceptible or tolerant to ASFV using molecular computational genetics.</p> <p>The nucleotide and amino acid sequence (aas) of the 5 genes of pig, warthog and babyrousa were downloaded from NCBI, Essembel geneome browser, and Uniprot database. They were aligned and analysed to predict functional effect of amino acid substitution as deleterious or neutral for small insertions and deletions.</p> <p>The candidate genes were observed to have variants with the exception of NFKBIA. They were observed to have deleterious variants. These deleterious variants may be responsible for the susceptibility or tolerance of this family to ASF disease.</p> O. O. Oluwole ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 19 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Fermented Maize-meal Infusion on Feed Efficiency, Growth Performance and Antioxidants Status of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermented maize-meal infusion on feed quality, growth performance and immune status of African catfish, <em>Clarias gariepinus </em>fingerlings.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Department of Biochemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria, between March 2017 and July 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A total of 120 African catfish, <em>Clarias gariepinus </em>fingerlings (mean initial weight 7.43±0.24 grams) were randomly distributed into 2 groups of 3 replicates each. Each replicate contained 20 fish. Fermented feed (FF) produced using fermented maize-meal (<em>ogi</em>) infusion for 72 h was fed 5% body weight to a group of 60 fish (in 3 replicates) for 10 weeks, compared to fish fed control pellet containing similar ingredients but was non-fermented (NF). Proximate composition of feeds and whole fish, feed efficiency and growth performance, biochemical and antioxidant parameters in African catfish,<em> Clarias gariepinus </em>were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of proximate composition of FF and NF diets were not significantly (<em>P</em>&gt;0.05) different in crude protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate and moisture contents. However, fat (lipid) was significantly lower in FF diet, while the level of ash was significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) higher in FF than in the NF control. Proximate composition of whole fish fed NF and FF diets are significantly similar for crude protein, crude fibre, fat and carbohydrate contents. However, ash and moisture contents were significantly higher in fish fed NF than FF. The results for feed efficiency and growth performance of African catfish fed experimental diets indicated similar feed acceptance and intake and consequently similar growth performance. The hematological indices; packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) were observed to be significantly higher in fish fed the FF diet. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly elevated in serum of fish administered the non-fermented diet while alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) indicated elevated activities in fish fed fermented diet. The chloride and potassium ions and cholesterol indicated significantly higher concentration in the serum of fish fed fermented diet. Conversely, the inorganic phosphate, calcium, total protein and triglycerides were significantly higher in the serum of fish fed the non-fermented diet. Contrastingly, the concentration of sodium ion and creatinine did not differ significantly between the fish fed the experimental diets. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly elevated in the serum of fish fed FF diet.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Fermented diet with probiotics from maize-meal infusion improved biochemical and antioxidant parameters of <em>Clarias gariepinus </em>without impairing fish performance.</p> A. Aliyu-A, M. Aliyu-Paiko, J. Abafi, A. Abdul-Malik, K. M. Adamu, M. A. King ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 20 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Fermentation of Feed Ingredients as Potential Strategy to Improve Health Status and Reduce Opportunistic Pathogens in Fish Farming <p>The rapid increase in fish farming has been affected by outbreak of diseases and erratic feed costs. These challenges have stimulated increase in the use of antibiotics to rear fish. Unfortunately, excessive use of antibiotics inhibits or kills beneficial gut microbiota and makes antibiotic residues to accumulate in fish products, which are harmful for human consumption. The use of biological strategies has therefore, been adopted to improve health status, growth performance and reduce predisposition of fish to diseases. This has become necessary in view of the EU ban on most antibiotics used as growth promoters in animal husbandry due to their roles in the production of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, use of the natural fermentation process, which utilizes functional and safe microbes to transform large and potentially harmful chemical constituents in fish feed to less harmful or safe states have been contemplated in aquaculture. In the present review, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) activity during feed fermentation to mediate positive effects in farmed fish is highlighted, including; modulation of gastrointestinal pH, production of bacteriocins, competitive inhibition and translocation of pathogenic bacteria in the GIT. Other potentials of fermentation to promote feed efficiency and growth performance in fish are also discussed.</p> A. Aliyu-A, M. Aliyu-Paiko, J. Abafi, A. Abdul-Malik, K. M. Adamu, M. A. King ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 11 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000