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Aim: This research work is aimed at studies on physicochemical analysis and biodecolorization potential of some bacteria isolated from textile effluent.
Study Design: This study is designed to isolate and identify species of bacteria from textile effluent. To determine the physicochemical properties of the textile effluent. To use bacteria isolates in biodecolorization of the textile effluent. To determine the physicochemical properties of the textile effluent after treatment with bacterial isolates using methods described by the American public health association. To biodecolorize textile effluents at three different concentrations.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, between September 2016 and October 2017.
Methodology: Samples of textile effluent were collected in clean containers, the physicochemical properties were analyzed using standard methods described by the American Public Health Association and compared with those of national and international standards. These textile effluents were subjected to bacterial decolorization using a decolorization medium, composed of minimal salt medium and textile effluent for a period of 15 days, the %decolorization was measured by checking absorbance of the sample at 72 hours intervals using a UV- spectrophotometer. This was repeated at different concentrations of 20 ml/250 ml, 20 ml/500 ml, and 20 ml/1000 ml (v/v of textile effluent and minimal salt medium).
Results: The bacteria isolates used were Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus. The physicochemical properties of the effluent changed after 15 days of bacterial activity, at best; the pH was reduced from 9.8 to 7.2, color from black to clear/colorless, turbidity from 9,750 to 1,201NTU, TDS from 22,800 to 3,351 mg/L, conductivity from 33,800 to 5,001 µs/cm, sulphate from 975 to 91 mg/L, phosphates from 2.75 to 0.86 mg/L, COD from 3,550 to 195 mg/L, BOD from 1,425 to 78 mg/L. The highest %decolorization was observed to be 53.56% by B. subtilis, followed by 50.95% by P. aeruginosa, and 47.97% by M. luteus.
Conclusion: From this study, it can be deduced that the use of bacteria in biodecolorization has shown great potential and also improves the physicochemical properties of the effluent. However, there is need for further work to be done to validate and improve these findings.