Quality Evaluation of Ogi from Acha (Digitaria exilis), Soybean (Glycine max) and Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Composite Flour
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology,
Ogi was produced from composite flour of fermented Acha, roasted Soybean and Carrot. The raw materials were blended in varying proportions. Proximate composition, functional properties and sensory characteristics of the formulated Ogi samples were evaluated. The results of the proximate composition showed a significant increase in moisture (5.36% to 9.94%), protein (3.94% to 16.98%), fat (1.89% to 10.23%), crude fiber (1.80% to 3.12%) and ash (0.35% to 0.99%); while a decrease was observed in carbohydrate (86.66% to 58.74%) with increase in supplementation with roasted Soybean flour and constant addition of carrot flour along with the milk flavor. The functional properties showed significant increase in foam capacity (5.99% to 7.97%), Swelling index (2.46 v/v to 3.08 v/v) and Least gelation capacity (8.10% to 14.0%); while a decrease was observed in bulk density (0.84 g/mL to 0.72 g/mL), water absorption capacity (1.40% to 1.10%) and foaming stability (3.39% to 2.79%). Sensory characteristics result revealed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in aroma and overall acceptability with increasing incorporation of roasted Soybean flour and constant addition of Carrot flour with milk flavor. Aside the control sample (containing 100% fermented Acha flour) there was preference for Sample C (70% fermented Acha flour: 15% roasted Soybean flour: 10% Carrot flour: 5% Milk flavor) and Sample D (60% fermented Acha flour: 25% roasted Soybean flour: 10% `Carrot flour: 5% Milk flavor) in terms of color (6.65 and 6.25), taste (6.95 and 6.35), aroma (6.45 and 6.30), mouth feel (6.10 and 6.35) and overall acceptability (6.50 and 6.50) respectively, among the blend formulations. Supplementation of fermented Acha with roasted Soybean and Carrot flour considerably increased the protein and fat contents of the blend; hence Soybean should be used for supplementation of cereal based product in order to improve their nutritional composition.
- Carrot flour
- fermented Acha flour
- functional properties
- proximate composition
- roasted soybean flour
- sensory characteristics.
How to Cite
Abioye VF, Aka MO. Proximate composition and sensory properties of moringa fortified maize-ogi. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2015; 12:1-4.
Afolayan MO, Afolayan M, Abuah JN. An investigation into sorghum based ogi (Ogi-Baba) storage characteristics. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2010;2(1):72-8.
Mbaeyi-Nwaoha IE, Obetta FC. Production and evaluation of nutrient-dense complementary food from millet (Pennisetum glaucum), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and seedless breadfruit (Artocarpus altillis) leaf powder blends. African Journal of Food Science. 2016;10 (9):143-56.
Esther L, Charles AO, Adeoye OS, Toyin OA. Effects of drying method on selected properties of ogi (Gruel) prepared from sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and Maize (Zea mays). Food Process Technol. 2013;4 (7):1000248.
Manay N, Shakaksharaswany M. Food Facts and Principles. 2nd edition. India: New Age International Ltd; 2006.
Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated food science and technology for the tropics: Macmillan; 1985.
Enwere NJ. Foods of plant origin. Nsukka, Nigeria: Afro-Orbis Pub, Ltd; 1998.
Istifanus MF, Agbo EB. Nutritional and Health Benefits of Acha (Digitaria exilis) in the Human Diet–A Review. Nigerian Food Journal. 2016;34(2):72-8.
Barikmo I, Ouattara F, Oshaug A. Protein, carbohydrate and fibre in cereals from Mali—how to fit the results in a food Compositiontable and database. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2004;17 (3-4):291-300.
National Research Council. Lost crops of Africa: volume I: grains: National Academies Press; 1996.
Chinwe OU, Ojukwu EO, Jackson BA. ACHA: A potential grain as a food fortifier. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2015;3(05).
Echendu CA, Obizoba IC, Anyika JU, Ojimelukwe PC. Changes in chemical composition of treated and untreated Hungry Rice “Acha” (Digitaria exilis). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009;8(11): 1779-85.
Iwe MO. The science and technology of soybeans. Enugu, Nigeria: 20 communication service Ltd.; 2003.
Agume A, Njintang N, Mbofung C. Effect of soaking and roasting on the physicochemical and pasting properties of soybean flour. Foods. 2017;6(2):12.
Lee G, Wu X, Shannon G, Sleper A, Nguyen T. Soybean, chapter 1 in genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants; Oilseeds Kole C., Ed. Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany. 2007;1-53.
Knight DC, Eden JA. A review of the clinical effects of phytoestrogens. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1996;87(5):897-904.
Ekor M, Emerole GO, Farombi EO. Phenolic extract of soybean (Glycine max) attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010;48(4):1005-12.
USDA. World Agricultural Production; Foreign Agricultural Service Circular Series. Washington, DC, USA. 2016; 6-16.
Plahar WA, Nti CA, Annan NT. Effect of soy-fortification method on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of fermented maize meal. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1997;51(4): 365-80.
Tchango JT. The nutritive quality of maize-soybean (70: 30) tempe flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1995;47(4):319-26.
Yadav S, Khetarpaul N. Indigenous legume fermentation: Effect on some antinutrients and in-vitro digestibility of starch and protein. Food Chemistry. 1994; 50(4):403-6.
Baik BK, Han IH. Cooking, roasting, and fermentation of chickpeas, lentils, peas, and soybeans for fortification of leavened bread. Cereal Chemistry. 2012;89(6):269-75.
Sharma KD, Karki S, Thakur NS, Attri S. Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot—a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012;49(1):22-32.
Bystrická J, Kavalcová P, Musilová J, Vollmannová A, Tomáš T, Lenková M. Carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang.) as source of antioxidants. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 2015;105(2):303-11.
Phebean IO, Akinyele O, Toyin A, Folasade O, Olabisi A, Nnenna E. Development and quality evaluation of carrot powder and cowpea flour enriched biscuits. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. 2017;2(2):67-72.
Adegoke GO. Understanding food Microbiology. 2nd Edition. Nigeria: Alleluia Venture Ltd; 2004.
Osungbaro TO. Physical and nutritive properties of fermented cereal foods. African Journal of Food Science. 2009; 3(2):023-7.
Msheliza EA, Hussein JB, Ilesanmi JO, Nkama I. Effect of fermentation and roasting on the physicochemical properties of weaning food produced from blends of sorghum and soybean. J Nutr Food Sci. 2018;8(681):2.
Marvin S. Processing of dried carrots and carrot powder. Food Recipe; 2009.
Ihekoronye AI. Manual of Small-Scale Food Processing. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd; 1999.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition. Washington D.C. USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemist; 2010.
Ahemen SA, Shima AN, Acham IO. Evaluation of the Physical, Functional and Microbiological Properties of Composite Bread from Wheat, Tigernut and Defatted Sesame Flour Blends. Asian Food Science Journal. 2018;4(2):1-10.
Ohizua ER, Adeola AA, Idowu MA, Sobukola OP, Afolabi TA, Ishola RO, Ayansina SO, Oyekale TO, Falomo A. Nutrient composition, functional and pasting properties of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweetpotato flour blends. Food Science & Nutrition. 2017; 5(3):750-62.
Ojo DO, Enujiugha VN. Chemical Composition, Physico-Chemical Properties and Acceptability of Instant ‘Ogi’ from Blends of Fermented Maize, Conophor Nut and Melon Seeds. J Food Process Technol. 2016;7(630):2.
Meilgaard MC, Civille GV, Carr BT. Sensory Evaluation Techniques. 4th edition: CRC Press, Boca Raton; 2007.
Akume JN, Ariahu CC, Acham IO. Quality Evaluation of ready-to-eat Garri made from Cassava mash and mango fruit mesocarp blends. Asian Food Science Journal. 2019; 8(3):1-9.
Achidi AU, Tiencheu B, Tenyang N, Womeni HM, Moyeh MN, Ebini LT, Tatsinkou F. Quality evaluation of nine instant weaning foods formulated from cereal, legume, tuber, vegetable and crayfish. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering. 2016; 6(2):21-31.
Temple VJ, Bassa JD. Proximate chemical composition of Acha (Digitaria exilis) grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1991;56(4): 561-3.
FAO/WHO. Preparation and use of food-based dietary guidelines: Report of joint FAO/WHO consultation technical report series 880. Geneva. FAO/WHO/UNICEF Protein Advisory Group; 1998.
Ajala AS, Ogunsola AD, Odudele FB. Evaluation of drying temperature on proximate, thermal and physical properties of cocoyam flour. Global Institute for Research and Education Global Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology. 2014;3(4):13-8.
Shima AN, Ahemen SA, Acham IO. Effect of addition of Tigernut and defatted Sesame flours on the nutritional composition and sensory quality of the Wheat based Bread. Annals Food Science and Technology. 2019;20(1):15-23.
Chukwu BN, Ezebuiro VO, Samuel E, Nwachukwu KC. Gender differential in the incidence of Diabetes mellitus among the patients in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state, Nigeria. International Letters of Natural Sciences. 2013;4.
Jaja T, Yarhere IE. Risk factors for type 2 Diabetes mellitus in adolescents secondary school students in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 2015;42(2):137-41.
Onuh JO, Abdulsalam KO. Production and evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of maize-bambara groundnut “apula”. Nigerian Food Journal. 2009;27 (1):83-92.
Plaami SP. Content of dietary fiber in foods and its physiological effects. Food Reviews International. 1997;13(1):29-76.
Fasuan TO, Fawale SO, Enwerem DE, Uche N, Ayodele EA. Physicochemical, functional and economic analysis of complementary food from cereal, oilseed and animal polypeptide. International Food Research Journal. 2017;24(1).
Marta H, Tensiska T. Functional and amylographic properties of physically-modified sweet potato starch. KnE Life Sciences. 2017;2(6):689-700.
Menon L, Majumdar SD, Ravi U. Development and analysis of composite flour bread. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(7):4156-65.
Ige MM. Physicochemical, pasting and sensory characteristics of complementary foods formulated from plantain, pigeon pea and maize flours. Donnish Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017;3(2):007-15.
Akintayo ET, Oshodi AA, Esuoso KO. Effects of NaCl, ionic strength and pH on the foaming and gelation of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein concentrates. Food Chemistry. 1999;66(1):51-6.
Ali MA, El Tinay AH, Elkhalifa AEO, Mallasy LO, Babiker EE. Effect of different supplementation levels of soybean flour on pearl millet functional properties. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2012;3(1):1.
Moorthy SN, Ramanujam T. Variation in properties of starch in cassava varieties in relation to age of the crop. Starch‐Stärke. 1986;38(2):58-61.
Ruales J, Valencia S, Nair B. Effect of processing on the physico‐chemical characteristics of quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Starch‐Stärke. 1993;45(1):13-9.
Maninder K, Sandhu KS, Singh N. Comparative study of the functional, thermal and pasting properties of flours from different field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) cultivars. Food Chemistry. 2007;104 (1):259-67.
Chaparro Acuña SP, Gil González JH, Aristizábal Torres ID. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana) and soybean (Glycine max). Food Science and Technology. 2012;32(1):98-105.
Abstract View: 2281 times
PDF Download: 1044 times