Main Article Content
High protein from meat consumption has been associated recently to environmental depletion and health related issues despite the important contribution of meat and meat products in diet and growth development. This has motivated debates on a drastic shift from excessive meat consumption amongst stake holders, academics, animal rights activists and environmentalist as informed consumers are pushing food scientist for a more sustainable alternative protein source. Plant proteins are considered a suitable alternative protein. However, the nutritional, functional potential and the form of presentation have shown some technological difficulties which indicates that direct transformation of plant proteins to meat products is less feasible. Though meat alternative research is promising in developed countries, there are technological breakthroughs that have permitted to replace in part or fully certain sensory attributes of meat inspired by the technology behind the ancient east Asian traditionally structured products like tofu, seitan and tempeh. However, despite the global increase in meat consumption associated with high standard of living, the search for the meat protein alternative from plant products have been limited to the conventional sources of soybeans, beans, lentils, vegetables and pulses. Future research could be diversified and orientated towards improving the existing African foods produced endogenously from wild orchid tubers widely consumed in low middle income countries in the form of cakes, meat substitutes, fake meat, mock meat and/or meat replacements. The successful production of a convenient and acceptable plant-based meat replacement will go a long way to reduce or eliminate excessive meat consumption. This review is geared towards a wider data search concerning the advances in meat alternative research and particularly to illustrate on some neglected African endogenously processed products consumed as meat alternatives that needs further research on the wild tubers sources as ingredients for potential convenient and acceptable meat alternatives or extender.
Pereira PMDCC, Vicente AFDRB. Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet. Meat Sci. 2013;93,586-92.
Biesalski HK. Meat as a component of a healthy diet - Are there any risks or benefits if meat is avoided in the diet? Meat Science. 2005;70(3):509–524.
De Boer J, Schösler H, Aiking H. Meatless days or less but better? Exploring strategies to adapt Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges. Appetite. 2014;76:120-128.
Hallström E. Röös E, Börjesson P. Sustainable meat consumption quantitative analysis of nutritional intake, greenhouse gas emissions and land use from a Swedish perspective. Food Policy. 2014; 47:81–90.
Fiasla N. Meeting the demand: An estimation of potential future greenhouse gas emissions from meat production. Ecological Economics.2008;67(3):412-419.
Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar TD, Castel V, de Haan C. In Food and Agriculture Org (Ed.). Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options; 2006.
Yadavalli A, Jones K. Does a medium influence consumer demand? The case of lean finely textured beef in the United States. Food Policy 2014;49:219-227.
Bajzˇelj B, Richards KS, Allwood JM, Smith P, Dennis JS, Curmi E, Gilligan CA. Importance of food-demand management for climate mitigation. Nat. Clim. Change. 2014;4(10):924-929.
Tilman D, Balzer C, Hill J, Befort BL. Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.2011;108:20260–20264.
GBD. Causes of Death Collaborators. “Global, regional, and national age‑sex‑specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017”. Lancet 392. 2017;1736–1788.
Springmann M, et al. Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits; Nature. 2018;562:519-525.
WBCSD. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Food and Land Use; 2018.
FAO. Livestock's long shadow- Environmental issues and options. FAO publications; 2006.
Tukker A, Emmert S, Charter M, Vezzoli C, Sto E, Munch AM, Lahlou S, et al. Fostering change to sustainable consumption and productionan evidence based view. J. Cleaner Prod. 2008;16(11): 1218–1225.
Spencer M, Cienfuegos C, Guinard JX. The Flexitarian flip. in university dining venues: Student and adult consumer acceptance of mixed dishes in which animal protein has been partially replaced with plant protein. Food Qual. Prefer. 2018; 68:50–63.
Spencer M, Guinard, JX. The flexitarian Flip.: Testing the modalities of flavour as sensory strategies to accomplish the shift from meat-centered to vegetable-forward mixed dishes. J. Food Sci. 2018;83:175–187.
Food Navigator. Alternative Proteins; 2018.
Accessed 3 December 2018.
Gaye M. Food Futerology; 2018.
The Better Meat Company; 2018.
Accessed 3 December 2018.
van Huis A. In Annual Review of Entomology; 58 (ed. M. R. Berenbaum). Annual Reviews. 2013;563–583.
Denny A, Aisbitt B, Lunn J. Mycoprotein and health. Nutrition bulletin. 2008;33:298–310.
Accessed 3 December 2018.
Kumar P, Singh R, Gupta N, et al. Meat Analogues: Plant based alternatives to meat products- A review. ND International Journal of Food Fermentation Technology. 2015;5(2):107-119.
Asgar M, Fazilah A, Huda N, Bhat R, Karim A. Nonmeat protein alternatives as meat extenders and meat analogs. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2010;9(5):513–529.
Shurtleff W, Aoyagi A. The book of Tempe, 2nd edn.,(Ten Speed Press: 145); 2001.
Kasulo V, Mwabumba L, Munthali C. A review of edible orchids in Malawi. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2009;1(7): 133-139.
Challe JFX, Struik PC. The impact on orchid species abundance of gathering their edible tubers by HIV/AIDS orphans: A case of three villages in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. National Journal of African Science. 2008;56-3.
Menzepoh SB. Les orchidées comestibles chez le peuple Bagam, au Cameroun. Biotechnology Agronomy Society and Environment. 2011;15(4):509-514.
Dobgima JF, Tembe EA, Fokunang CN, Bup ND. Physical Characterization of Two Wild Varieties of Edible Orchid Tubers. Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2019;7(4):72-80.
Titanji V et al. Bali nyonga today. Roots, cultural practices and the future perspectives. Chapter 10. Spears Media Press, Denver; 2016.
Sadler MJ. Meat alternatives—Market developments and health benefits. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2004; 15(5):250-260.
Shurtleff W, Aoyagi A. History of meat alternatives (965 CE to 2014): Extensively annotated bibliography and sourcebook. Published by: Soyinfo Center; 2014.
Hegenbart S. mSoy: The beneficial bean. Food Product Design; 2002.
Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2010;25:613-20.
Istudor N, Raluca AI, Irina EP. Research on consumer's self-protection through a Health Diet. Amfiteatru Economic. 2010; 12:436-43.
McNeill S, Van Elswyk ME. Red meat in global nutrition. Meat Sci. 2012;92:166- 73.
Baena RR, Salinas HP. Diet and cancer: Risk factors and epidemiological evidence. Maturitas. 2014;77:202-8.
Nijdam D, Rood T, Westhoek H. The price of protein: Review of land use and carbon footprints from life cycle assessments of animal food products and their substitutes. Food Policy. 2012;37(6):760–770.
Boada LD, Henríquez-Hernández LA, Luzardo OP. The impact of red and processed meat consumption on cancer and other health outcomes: epidemiological evidences. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2016;92:236–244.
Froggatt A, Wellesley L. Meat analogues considerations for the eu. The royal institute of international affairs chatham house; 2019.
ISBN 978 1 78413 312.
Mottet AHC, Falcucci A, Tempio GOC, Gerber P. Livestock: On our plate or eating at our table? A new analysis of the feed/food debate. Global Food Security. 2017;14:1-8.
Gerber PJ, Steinfeld H, Henderson B, Mottet A, Opio C, Dijkman J, Falcucci A, Tempio G. Tackling climate change through livestock: A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities [Internet]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2013.
Carrington D. Giving up beef will reduce carbon footprint more than cars, says expert; 2014.
Tubiello FN, Salvatore M, Cóndor Golec RD, Ferrara A, Rossi S, Biancalani R, Flammin A, et al. Agriculture, forestry and other land use emissions by sources and removals by sinks 1990–2011 analysis. FAO Statistics Division. Working Paper Series ESS/14-02; 2014.
Van Boeckel TP, Glennon EE, Chen D, Gilbert M, Robinson TP, Grenfell TP, Levin SA, Bonhoeffer S, Laxminarayan R. Reducing antimicrobial use in food animals. Science. 2017;357(6358):1350-1352.
Schmidt JW, Agga GE, Bosilevac JM, Brichta-Harhay DM, Shackelford SD, Wang R, Arthur TM.. Occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef cattle production and processing continuum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2015;81(2):713–725. Available: http://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03079-14
IARC. IARC Monographs evaluate the consumption of red meat and processed meat; 2015.
McAfee AJ, McSorley EM, Cuskelly GJ, Moss BW, Wallace JMW, Bonham MP. et al. Red meat consumption: An overview of the risks and benefits. Meat Science 2010; 84(1):1–13.
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010; 121(21):2271–2283.
Clark B, Stewart GB, Panzone LA, Kyriazakis I, Frewer LJ. Citizens, consumers and farm animal welfare: A meta-analysis of willingness-to-pay studies. Food Policy. 2017;68:112–127.
Mayfield LE, Bennett RM, Tranter RB, Woolridge MJ. Consumption of welfare-friendly food products in Great Britain, Italy and Sweden, an how it may be influenced by consumer attitudes to and behaviour towards, animal welfare attributes. Int. J Socio Food Agri. 2007;15:59–73.
Roser M, Ritchie H. Yields and land use in agriculture. In: our world in data.org [Internet]; 2019.
Díaz S, Settele J, Brondízio E. IPBES global assessment summary for policymakers [Internet]. United Nations; 2019.
Poore J, Nemecek T. Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science. 2018;360:987–992.
Edenhofer O, et al. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of climate change: contribution of working group iii to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press; 2014.
Heller MC, Keoleian GA. Beyond Meat’s Beyond Burger life cycle assessment: A detailed comparison between a plant-based and an animal-based protein source [Internet]. University of Michigan Center for Sustainable System; 2018.
Dettling J, Tu Q, Faist M, DelDuce A, Mandelbaum S. A comparative life cycle assessment of plant-based foods and meat foods [Internet]. Quantis USA and MorningStar Farms; 2016.
Smith P, et al. How much land-based greenhouse gas mitigation can be achieved without compromising food security and environmental goals? Global Change Biology. 2013;19:2285–2302.
Herrero M, Wirsenius S, Henderson B, Rigolot C, Thornton P, Havlik P, de Boer I, Gerber PJ. Livestock and the environment: What have we learned in the past decade? Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 2015;40: 177–202.
Selman M, Greenhalgh S, Díaz R, Sugg, Z. Eutrophication and hypoxia in coastal areas: A global assessment of the state of knowledge. World Resources Institute; 2008.
Mateo-Sagasta J, Marjani ZS, Turral H. Water pollution from agriculture: A global review: Executive summary [Internet]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Water Management Institute; 2017.
O’Neill J. Tackling drug-resistant infections globally: Final report and recommendations [Internet]. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance; 2016.
Marshal BM, Levy SB. Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2011;24: 718–733.
United Nations Interagency Coordination Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (UNICGAN); 2019.
Malav O, Talukder S, Gokulakrishnan P, Chand S. Meat analog: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015;55(9):1241–1245.
Keefe LM. FakeMeat: How big a deal will animal meat analogs ultimately be? Feature Article; 2018.
Kuamar P. Chatli MK, Mehta N. et al.. Meat analogues: health promising sustainable meat substitutes, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Tech. 2017;57:923–932.
Taylor J, Mohamed Ahmed IA, Al-Juhaimi FY, Bekhit A, El-Din A. Consumers perceptions and sensory properties of beef patty analogues. Foods. 2020;9:63.
Elzerman JE, Van Boekel, MAJS, Luning PA.. Exploring meat substitutes: Consumer experiences and contextual factors. British Food Journal. 2013;115(5):700-710.
Joshi VK, Kumar S. Meat Analogues: plant based alternatives to meatproducts. Int. J. Food Ferment. Tech. 2015;5:107–119.
Orcutt M, McMindes M, Chu H, Mueller I, Bater B, Orcutt A, et al. Textured soy protein utilization in meat and meat analog products. Soy applications in food. 2006; 155–184.
Egbert R, Borders C. Achieving success with meat analogs. Food Technol-Chicago. 2006;60:28–34.
Langelaan ML, Boonen P, Polak KJM, Baaijens RB, Post FPT MJ, van der Schaft DWJ. Meet the new meat: Tissue engineered skeletal muscle.Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2010;21(2):59–66.
Post MJ. Cultured meat from stem cells: Challenges and prospects. Meat Science. 2012;92(3):297–301.
Post MJ. Cultured beef: Medical technology to produce food. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2014; 94(6):1039–1041.
Smetana S, Mathys A, Knoch A, Heinz V. Meat alternatives: Life cycle assessment of most known meat substitutes, SInternational Journal Life Cycle Assessment. 2015;20:1254-1267.
Wiebe MG. QuornTM Myco-protein - overview of a successful fungal product. Mycologist. 2004;18(1):17–20.
Wiebe M. Myco-protein from Fusarium venenatum: A well-established product for human consumption. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2002;58(4):421– 427.
Ho W, Sirkar K. Membrane handbook; 2012.
Rampon V, Robert P, Nicolas N, Dufour E. Protein structure and network orientation in edible ﬁlms prepared by spinning process. Journal of Food Science. 1999;64(2):313–316.
Schiffman JD, Schauer CL. A review: Electrospinning of biopolymer nanofibers and their applications. Polymer Reviews. 2008;48(2):317–352.
Librán CM, Castro S, Lagaron JM. Encapsulation by electrospray coating atomization of probiotic strains. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 2017;39:216–222.
Nieuwland M, Geerdink P, Brier P, Van Den Eijnden P, Henket JTMM, Langelaan MLP, et al. Reprint of food-grade electrospinning of proteins. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2014;24:138–144.
Wild F, Czerny M, Janssen AM, Kole AP, Zunabovic M, Domig KJ. The evolution of a plant-based alternative to meat. Agro FOOD Industry HiTech. 2014;25(1).
Emin MA, Schuchmann HP. A mechanistic approach to analyze extrusion processing of biopolymers by numerical, rheological, and optical methods. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2017;60:88–95.
Kweldam AC. Method for the preparation of a meat substitute product, meat substitute product obtained with the method and ready to consume meat substitute product; 2011.
Manski JM, Van der Goot AJ, Boom RM. Formation of fibrous materials from dense calcium caseinate dispersions. Biomacromolecules. 2007;8(4):1271–1279.
Manski JM, Van der Goot AJ, Boom RM. Advances in structure formation of anisotropic protein-rich foods through novel processing concepts. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2007;18(11): 546–557.
Krintiras GA, Göbel J, Bouwman WG, Van der Goot AJ, Stefanidis GD. On characterization of anisotropic plant protein structures. Food and Function. 2014;5(12): 3233–3240.
Van den Einde RM, Bolsius A, Van Soest JJG, Janssen LPBM, Van der Goot AJ, Boom RM. The eﬀect of thermomechanical treatment on starch breakdown and the consequences for process design. Carbohydrate Polymers 2004;55(1):57–63.
Dekkers BL, Nikiforidis CV, Van der Goot AJ. Shear-induced fibrous structure formation from a pectin/SPI blend. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2016;36:193–200.
Grabowska KJ, Zhu S, Dekkers BL, De Ruijter NCA, Gieteling J, Van Der Goot AJ. Shear-induced structuring as a tool to make anisotropic materialsusing soy protein concentrate. Journal of Food Engineering. 2016;188:77–86.
Krintiras GA, Diaz JG, Van der Goot AJ, Stankiewicz AI, Stefanidis GD.. On the use of the Couette Cell technology for large scale production of textured soy-based meat replacers. Journal of Food Engineering. 2016;169: 205-213.
Hoeck AC, Luning PA, Weijzen P, Engels W, Kok, FJ De Graaf C. Replacement of meat by meat substitute: A survey on person and product related factors on consumert’s acceptance. Appetite. 2011; 56(3):662-673.
Kumar P, Chatli MK, Nitin M, Parminder S, Malav OP, Akhilesh KV. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitute. Accepted Manuscript. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition; 2012.
Riascos JJ, Weissinger AK, Weissinger SM, Burks AW. Hypoallergenic legume crops and food allergy: Factors affecting feasibility and risk. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010;58:20-7.
Singh MB, Bhalla PL. Genetic engineering for removing food allergens from plants. Trends in Plant Sciences. 2008;13:257-60.
Havlik J, Vladimir P, Javier F, Vojtech R. Dietary purines in vegetarian meat analogues. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90: 2352–235.
Fukushima D. Soy proteins. In: Yada RY (ed). Proteins in food processing. England: Woodhead Publishing Limited. 2004;123-145.
Elzerman JE, Hoek AC, Van Boekel MJ, et al. Appropriateness, acceptance and sensory preferences based on visual information: A web-based survey on meat substitutes in a meal context. Food Quality. Preference. 2015;42: 56-65.
Verbeke W, Van Wezemael L, De Barcellos MD, Kügler JO, Hocquette JF, Ueland O, et al. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Insights from a qualitative study in four EU countries. 2010;54(2):289–296.
Neville M, Tarrega A, Hewson L, Foster T. Consumer-orientated development of hybrid beef burger and sausage anaogues. Food Science Nutrition. 2017;1-13.
Hoek AC. Elzerman JE, Hageman R, Kok FJ, Luning PA, De Graaf C. Are meat substitutes liked better over time? A repeated in-home use test with meat substitutes or meat in meals’, Food Quality and Preference. 2013;28(1):253–63
(Accessed 19 Nov. 2018).
Elzerman H. Substitution of meat by NPFs: Sensory properties and contextual factors. In Aiking H, De Boer J, Vereijken J. (Eds.), Sustainable protein production and consumption: Pigs or peas? Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. 2006;116–122.
Hoek AC, Luning PA, Stafleu A, De Graaf C. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers. 2004;42(3):265–272.
Aiking H, De Boer J. Background, aims and scope. In H. Aiking, J. de Boer and J. Vereijken (Eds.), Sustainable protein production and consumption: Pigs or peas? Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. 2006;1-21.
Weaver P, Jansen L, Van Grootveld G, Van Spiegel E, Vergragt P. Sustainable technology development. Sheffield (UK): Greenleaf Publishing Ltd; 2000.
Kyriakopoulou K, Dekkers B, Van der Goot AJ. Plant-based meat analogues,in: Sustainable Meat Production and Processing. Academic Press. 2019;103-126.
Waitrose, et al. Food and drink report 2018–19: The era of the mindful consumer; 2018.
(Accessed 19 Nov. 2018)
Apostolidis C, McLeay F. Should we stop meating like this? Reducing meat consumption through Substitution. Food Policy. 2016;65:74–89.
The War on Meat. How low-meat and no-meat diets are impacting consumer markets; 2011.
Dagevos H, Voordouw J. Sustainability: Science, practice and policy. 2010;9(2):1-10.
Kole APW, Van Veggel R. Changes in carnivorous consumption, in Vleesminnaars, vleesminderaars en vleesmijders: duurzame eiwitconsumptie in een carnivore eetcultuur. [Meat lovers, meat reducers and meat avoiders: Sustainable protein consumption in a carnivorous eating culture] Edited De Bakker E, Dagevos H, Wageningen UR report for the Dutch Ministery of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, The Hague, The Netherlands; 2010.
Hartmann C, Siegrist M. Consumer perception and behaviour regarding sustainable protein consumption: A systematic review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2017;61:11-12.
(Accessed 17 Jan. 2019).
Bohrer BM. An investigation of the formulation and nutritional composition of modern meat analogue products. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2019; 8:320-329.
Bubela T, Hagen G, Einsiedel E. Synthetic biology confronts publics and policy makers: challenges for communication, regulation and commercialization. Trends in Biotechnology. 2012;30(3):132-37.
Bailey R, Froggatt A, Wellesley L. Livestock – climate change’s forgotten sector: Global public opinion on meat and dairy consumption. Chatham House Report, London: Royal Institute of International Affairs; 2014.
Available:https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/field/field_document/20141203LivestockClimateChangeForgottenSectorBaileyFroggattWellesleyFinal.pdf (Accessed 19 Nov. 2018).
Ryan C. Brits carve their meat intake: 28% of Brits have cut back their meat consumption over the last six months, Pig World; 2017.
(Accessed 19 Nov. 2018)
Laestadius LI, Neff R, Barry CL, Frattaroli S. No meat, less meat, or better meat: Understanding NGO messaging choices intended to alter meat consumption in light of climate change, Environmental Communication. 2016: 10(1):84-103.
(Accessed 16 Jan. 2019).
Smink MM, Hekkert MP, Negro SO. Keeping sustainable innovation on a leash? Exploring incumbents’ institutional strategies. Business Strategy and the Environment. 2015:24(2):86-101.
U.S. Cattlemen’s Association. ‘Petition for the imposition of beef and meat labelling requirements: to exclude products not derived directly from animals raised and slaughtered from the definition of “beef” and “meat”’; 2018.
(Accessed 18 Jan. 2019).
Davenport TRB, Ndangalasi HJ. An escalating trade in orchid tubers across Tanzania's Southern Highlands: Assessment, dynamics and conservation implications. 2003;37:55-61.
Bingham MG, Smith PP. Zambia. In Golding JS (ed.), Southern African plant red data lists. Southern African botanical diversity network report. SABONET, Pretoria. 2002;14:135-156.
Veldman S, Otieno J, Van Andel T, Gravendeel B, De Boer H. Efforts urged to tackle thriving illegal orchid trade in Tanzania and Zambia for chikanda production. Traffic Bulletin. 2014; 26:47-50.
Bingham M. Chikanda trade in Zambia. The Open Earth Project; 2004.
Davenport TRB, Ndangalasi HJ. Orchid Harvest – an assessment of the harvesting and trade of orchid tubers across Tanzania’s southern highlands. Unpublished Report, Wildlife Conservation Society, Tanzania; 2001.
Bingham M. Chikanda, An Unsustainable Industry. The Lowdown Zambia; 2007.