Assessment of the Microbial Quality of Braised Products from Bangangte City and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Selected Pathogens Isolated Therein
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology,
The present study had as objective to assess the microbiological quality and profile of some braised products and their accompanying soups sold in the city of Bangangte (Cameroon) and evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of selected pathogens isolated in these products. An investigation was conducted in three locations in city of Bangangte in order to assess the environment and working conditions as well as the respect of good hygiene practices. Then, samples of braised fish (05) and its soups (05), and braised chicken (05) and its soups (05) were collected from six vendors in each location. The samples (360) were submitted to microbiological analyses and the isolates were identified at species level using API gallery. The susceptibility of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were tested. The 72 participants involved in this study declared having knowledge on hygiene despite the fact that, most of them had no formal education and do not apply good hygiene practices. Microbiological analyses revealed the poor quality of all the samples of braised products. Fecal coliforms and staphylococci counts higher than the values recommended by norms demonstrated the non-respect of good hygiene and manufacturing practices during the braising activity. The 169 strains isolated from these products belonged to 12 different species: Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter spp., Morganella morganiae, Yersinia enterolitica, Yersinia frederiksenii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermitidis, Staphylococcus spp., Clostridium spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogene, and Proteus mirabilis. Strains which could be considered as marker of braised fish sold in the city of Bangangte were Yersinia enterolitica, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia while for braised chicken, they were Yersinia enterolitica, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. The antibiotic susceptibility test performed on these pathogens revealed that they were resistant with 93.75% having multiple antibiotic resistance index values greater than 0.2. We conclude that the microbiological quality of braised products is poor and we suggest to producers to applicate the good hygiene practices. For breeders, we suggest respecting withdrawal periods and the better use of antibiotics.
- Braised fish
- braised chicken
- accompanying soup
- braising conditions
- microbiological quality
- multiple antibiotic resistance index
How to Cite
Adjrah Y, Soncy K, Anani K, Blewussi K., Karou DS, Ameyapoh Y et al. Socio-economic profile of street food vendors and microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads in Lomé. Int. Food Res. J. 2013;20(1):65–70.
Sambo CG, An ethical assessment of street food vending in Lusaka’s central business district. Master thesis, University of Zambia. 2014;1–99.
Tavonga N, Operations of street food vendors and their impact on sustainable urban life in high density suburbs of Harare, in Zimbabwe. Asian J. Economic Modell. 2014;2(1):18–31.
Edima HC, Tem Nnam RK, Awono ET, Biloa DM, Ndjouenkeu R. Case study of the street food sector in the metropolitan areas of a Cameroonian city, Yaounde. Int. J. Cur. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 2014;3(9):740–751.
Bereket A, Habtamu A, Abdu M, Negasi T, Xia WS, Yang F. Effect of processing methods on nutritional and physico-chemical composition of fish: a review. MOJ Food Process. Technol. 2018;6(4):376–383.
Carnet C. Alimentation de rue en Afrique, Programme FAO, French. 1997;2:11.
Mbassi JEG, Tsafack ALS, Maboune AS, Eyenga EF, Sophie NE, Bongse KP. Quality evaluation of local Cameroonian mackerel (Scomber scombrus) processed by different methods. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2019;4(3):162–167.
Maffouo TMS. Evaluation of sanitary risks associated with the consumption of a street food in the city of Yaounde (Cameroon): case of braised fish, Master of Fish Engineering, Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences at Yabassi, University of Douala, Cameroon. 2019;1–91.
Baudart J, Paniel N. Sources et devenir des microorganismes pathogènes dans les environnements aquatiques. Revue Francophone des Laboratoires. 2014:29–39. French.
Tangwa CC, Kwetche PRF, Ngantchoup CCM, Djogang AM, Louokdom JS, Nguekap WLN et al. Microbiological quality of grilled meat (soya) sold along the ways in Bangangte, Nde Division (West-Cameroon). Scientific Contribution. 2019;9:27739–27743.
Ntsama ISB, Tambe BA, Tsafack Takadong JJ, Medoua GN, Kansci G. Characteristics of fish farming practices and agrochemicals usage therein in four regions of Cameroon. Egyptian J. Aquatic Res. 2018;44:145–153.
Abdelmassih M, Mahillon JMJG, Ferber FVP. Guide pratique alimentaire de microbiologie. Noûs. French. 2005;41:1–11.
Grema HA, Geidam YA, Suleiman A, Gulani IA, Birma RB. Multi-drug resistant bacteria isolated from fish and fish handlers in Maiduguri, Nigeria Roy Bitrus Birma. Int. J. Animal Veterinary Adv. 2015;7:49–54.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6887-2. Microbiologie de la chaîne alimentaire. Préparation des échantillons, de la suspension mère et des dilutions décimales en vue de l'examen micro- biologique, Partie 2: Règles spécifiques pour la préparation des viandes et produits carnés, French; 2017.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833-1. Microbiologie de la chaîne alimentaire. Méthode horizontale pour le dénombrement des micro-organismes. Partie 1: Comptage des colonies à 30 °C par la technique d'ensemencement en profondeur, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, French ; 2013.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4832. Microbiologie des aliments. Méthode horizontale pour le dénombrement des coliformes. Méthode par comptage des colonies, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, French; 2006.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 21527-1. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds - Part 1: Colony count technique in products with water activity greater than 0,95, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland; 2008.
International Organization for Standa- rdization (ISO) 6888-2. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) - Part 2: Technique using rabbit plasma fibrinogen agar medium. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland; 1999.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7218-1. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs General rules for microbiological examinations. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland; 2001.
Bergey DH, Holt JG, Krieg NR. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, East Lansing, MI, USA; 1994.
Cavalieri SJ, Rankin ID, Harbeck RJ, Sautter RL, McCarter YS, Sharp SE et al. Manual of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, In Coyle B.M., Ed. American Society for Microbiology; 2005.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 30th ed. CLSI Supplement M100, Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2020.
Samuel L, Marian MM, Apun K, Lesley MB, Son R. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from cultured catfish by antibiotic resistance and RAPD analysis. Int. Food Res. J. 2011;18(3):971–976.
Krumperman PH. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of Escherichia coli to identify high-risk sources of fecal contamination of foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1983;46(1):65–170.
Danikuu FM, Baguo FB, Azipala O. Hygiene practices among street food vendors in Tamale Metropolis. J. Med. Biomed. Sc. 2015;4(3):25–30.
Cortesea RDM, Veirosa MB, Feldman C, Cavallia SB. Food safety and hygiene practices of vendors during the chain of street food production in Florianopolis, Brazil: Across-sectional study. Food Control. 2016;62:178–186.
Alamo-Tonelada C, Silaran FY, Bildan MCA. Sanitary conditions of food vending sites and food handling practices of street food vendors: implication for food hygiene and safety. Int. J. Education Res. 2018;6(3):31–34.
Nkah G. Evaluation de la qualité microbiologique du maquereau à la braise commercialisé dans quelques quartiers de la ville de Douala. Mémoire d’Ingénieur, Institut des Sciences Halieutiques de Yabassi, Université de Douala. 2017;1–66. French.
Tewari A, Singh SP, Singh R. Incidence and enterotoxigenic profile of Bacillus cereus in meat and meat products of Uttarakhand, India. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2015;52(3):1796–1801.
Hall JA, Goulding JS, Bean NH, Tauxe RV, Hedberg CW. Epidemiologic profiling: evaluating foodborne outbreaks for which no pathogen was isolated by routine laboratory testing: United States, 1982–89. Epidemiol. Infect. 2001;127:381–387.
Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), the Australian and New Zealand Food Standards Code, In the Compendium of Microbiological Criteria for Food, Canberra, Australia; 2018.
Adeyeye SAO, Oyewole OB, Obadina AO, Omemu AM, Adeniran OE, Oyedele HA et al. Quality and safety assessment of traditional smoked fish from Lagos State, Nigeria. Int. J. Aquacul. 2015;5(15):1–9.
Dutta M, Majumdar PR, Islam RUl, Saha D. Bacterial and fungal population assessment in smoked fish during storage period. J. Food Microbiol. Saf. Hygiene. 2018;3:1-127.
Biswas AK, Kondaiah AK, Anjaneyulu AS, Mandal PK. Causes, concerns, consequences and control of microbial contaminants in meat. Int. J. Meat Sci. 2011;1:27–35.
Wei Q, Hwang S, Chen T. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-eat Food Products in Southern Taiwan. J. Food Drug Analysis. 2006;14(1):68–73.
Clarence SY, Obinna CN, Shalom, NC. Assessment of bacteriological quality of ready to eat food (Meat pie) in Benin City metropolis. Nigeria, Afr. Microbiol. Res. 2009;3(6):390–395.
Burt M, Volel C, Finkel M. Safety of vendor prepared foods: Evaluation of processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan. Public Health Reports. 2003;118:470–476.
Akinwumi FO, Adegbehingbe KT. Microbiological analysis of three smoked fish obtained from Ondo state, Nigeria. Food and Public Health. 2015;5(4):122–126.
Rane S. Street vended food in developing world: Hazard analyses. Indian J. Microbiol. 2011;51:100–106.
Cenci-Goga BT, Ortenzi R., Bartocci E, De Oliveira AC, Clementi F, Vizzani A. Effect of the Implementation of HACCP on the Microbiological Quality of Meals at a University Restaurant. Food Borne Pathogens Dis. 2005;2:138–145.
International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). Microorganism in Foods. in Kluwer Aca. Microorganism in foods. New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Plenum Publishers; 2005.
Mouafo TH, Mbawala A, Tanaji K, Devappa Somashekar D, Ndjouenkeu R. Improvement of the shelf life of raw ground goat meat by using biosurfactants produced by lactobacilli strains as biopreservatives. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 2020b;133:e110071.
Ed-Dra A, Rhazi Filali F, El Allaoui A, Aboulkacem A. Factors influencing the bacteriological quality of sausages sold in Meknes city, Morocco. Int. Food Res. J. 2017;24(3):933–938.
Hennekinne J. A. Innovative approaches to improve staphylococcal food poisoning characterization, Life Sciences [q-bio]. AgroParisTech English; 2009.
Mouafo TH, Baomog AMB, Adjele JJB, Sokamte TA, Mbawala A, Ndjouenkeu R. Microbial profile of fresh beef sold in the markets of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon, and antiadhesive activity of biosurfactants against selected bacterial pathogens. J. Food Quality. 2020a;2020:1–10. Available: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5989428.
Gupta V, Gulati P, Bhagat N, Dhar MS, Virdi JS. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in food: an overview. European J. Clin. Microbiol. Infectious Dis. 2014;34(4):1–10.
Barber LI, Obinna-Echem PC, Amadi SC. Microbiological quality and antibiotic sensitivity of potential pathogens isolated from meat product (Suya) sold in Rivers State University and its environs. Int. J. Biotechnol. Food Sci. 2018;6(4):67–76.
Moore D. Antibiotic Classification and Mechanism; 2015.
Armstrong ES, Kostrub CF, Cass RT, Moser HE, Serio AW, Miller GH. Aminoglycosides, in: T.J. Dougherty, M.J. Pucci (Eds.), Antibiotic Discov. Dev. 2012;(1):229–269.
Niwa T, Morimoto M, Hirai T, Hata T, Hayashi M, Imagawa. Effect of penicillin-based antibiotics, amoxicillin, ampicillin, and piperacillin, on drug-metabolizing activities of human hepatic cytochromes P450. J. Toxicol. Sci. 2016;41(1):143–6.
Wadoum REG, Zambou NF, Anyangwe FF, Njimou JR, Coman MM, Verdenelli MC et al. Abusive use of antibiotics in poultry farming in Cameroon and the public health implications. British Poultry Sci. 2016;57(4):483–493.
Fakorede CN, Fatokun EN, Philip-Kantiok B, Iwu CJ, Jaja IF. Bacteriological Quality and Antibiotics' Susceptibility Profile of Small-medium Scale Commercial Fish farms in Nigeria. Open Agric. J. 2020;14:199–207.
Bodunde RS, Ogidi CO, Akinyele BJ. Load and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Microorganisms in Muscle Foods Sold in Akure, Southwest Nigeria. J. Food Quality and Hazards Control. 2019;6:30–36.
Mensah SEP, Dakpogan H, Aboh AB, Sika KC, Abléto M, Adjahoutonon B et al. Occurrence of antibiotic residues in raw fish Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus from intensive rearing system in Benin. Veterinaria, Veterinary Faculty Sarajevo. 2019;68(2):91–94.
Mukota AK, Gondam MFK, Tsafack JJT, Sasanya J, Reybroeck W, Ntale M et al. Primary validation of Charm II tests for the detection of antimicrobial residues in a range of aquaculture fish. BMC Chem. 2020;14:1–32. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-020-00684-4
Osundiya OO, Oladele RO, Oduyebo OO. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Indices of Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species isolates in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, African J. Clinical Exp. Microbiol. 2013;14(3):164–168.
Sandhu R, Dahiya S, Sayal P. Evaluation of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index and Doxycycline susceptibility of Acinetobacter species among inpatients. Indian. J. Microbiol. Res. 2016;3(3):299–304.
Ed-Dra A, Rhazi Filali F, Bouymajane A, Benhallam F, El Allaoui A, Chaiba A et al. Antibiotic Susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sausages in Meknes, Morocco. Veterinary World. 2018;11(9):1459–1465.
Bouymajane A, Rhazi Filali F, Oulghazi S, Ed-Dra A, Benhallam F, El Allaoui A et al. Occurrence, molecular and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from raw cow’s milk trade by street trading in Meknes city, Morocco. GERMS. 2018;8(2):77–84.
Abstract View: 118 times
PDF Download: 52 times