Molecular Characterization and Toxicity of Heavy Metal Quinary Mixtures on Enterobacter cloacae Isolate from Nworie River
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology,
The molecular characterization and toxicity of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Copper (Cu) quinary mixtures on Enterobacter cloacae isolate from Nworie River was investigated. Quinary mixtures of the heavy metals were compounded using fixed ratio (%); and inhibitory effect assessed using inhibition of total dehydrogenase as toxicity response. The mixtures consisted of five heavy metals in the ratios: Pb (20%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (20%) + Zn (20%) + Cu (20%), Pb (30%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (10%) + Zn (30%) + Cu (10%). Pb (10%) + Cr (10%) + Cd (30%) + Zn (40%) + Cu (10%), Pb (15%) + Cr (25%) + Cd (25%) + Zn (15%) + Cu (20%), Pb (40%) + Cr (15%) + Cd (5%) + Zn (20%) + Cu(20%). Result obtained showed that toxicity of the metals against the bacterium ranked in the order Cu > Cr >Zn > Pb > Cd. The quinary mixtures Pb (20%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (20%) + Zn (20%) + Cu (20%), Pb (30%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (10%) + Zn (30%) + Cu (10%) and 10%Pb + 10%Cr + 30%Cd + 40%Zn + 10%Cu showed synergistic interaction, while 15%Pb + 25%Cr + 25%Cd + 15%Zn + 20%Cu and 40%Pb + 15%Cr + 5%Cd + 20%Zn + 20%Cu mixtures were antagonistic and additive respectively. Threshold inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the quinary mixtures was 0.054 ± 0.005mM, 0.053 ± 0.002 mM, 0.038 ± 0.002 mM, 0.077 ± 0.007 mM and 0.058 ± 0.006 mM for the respective mixtures. The toxic index values evaluated for the mixtures exhibited antagonistic, synergistic and additive interaction in the various ratios. The 16S rRNA and ITSF1 sequences obtained of the isolate showed the phylogenetic placement of the 16S rRNA of the isolate was closely related to Enterobacter cloacae strain DL01 (MH168084). The heavy metals mixtures demonstrated diverse toxicity interaction on the isolate depending on their relative composition, thus poses a threat to aquatic microbial diversity.
- Nworie River
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