Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology 2021-10-12T01:54:34+00:00 Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian&nbsp;Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-0125)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJB2T/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> Studies on Bioethanol Production with Thermo Tolerant Yeast Isolates and their Co-Cultures using African Wild Cocoyam as Feedstock 2021-10-07T09:24:50+00:00 I. Nnamchi Chukwudi U. Nwachi OkeChukwu A. Ndubuisi Ifeanyi C. Amadi Onyetugo <p>In this work different ways of optimally producing bioethanol at various pH with thermotolerant yeasts and their cocultures using a non-human edible starchy food as feedstock was examined. African wild cocoyam, <em>Xanthosoma roseum</em>, sourced from abandoned farmlands in Obukpa, Nsukka, Nigeria was used as the substrate, while strains of <em>Kluyveromyces marxianus</em> and <em>Pichia stipitis</em> were used to ferment them. First the tubers were gelatinized by boiling under pressure above 100<sup>o</sup>C before hydrolysis with concentrated H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>. The hydrolysates were then fermented at 35<sup>o</sup>C with the thermotolerant yeasts for five days at different pH. Results obtained showed that gelatinized sample of the substrate gave optimum glucose yield when hydrolysed with 1M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>for 60 minutes. <em>Kluyveromyces marxianus</em> produced more ethanol than <em>Pichia stipitis</em> at all the four fermentation pH values tested. However, optimum ethanol production was obtained when the two yeast strains were used as coculture at pH 4.5. The peak time for ethanol production was 96 hours for the individual yeast cultures while that of their coculture was 72 hours. The results of the study indicated that wild cocoyam is an excellent feedstock for bioethanol production with many advantages including being non-edible, thereby eliminating concerns for food security, and containing high amount of carbohydrate. The study also revealed that fermenting sugar hydrolysates with a coculture of microorganisms during bioethanol production is a more efficient process than using individual cultures.</p> 2021-07-03T07:30:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physicochemical, Sensory, and Microbial Characteristics of Kindirmou and Pendidam, Two Traditional Fermented Milks of Adamawa - Cameroon, as Affected by the Fermentation Vessels 2021-09-25T02:44:16+00:00 Noël Mervie Mbiada Tchamba Bouba Adji Mohammadou Majesté Pahane Justine Maiwore Léopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu <p>Recent data show that the containers traditionally used for fermentation, due to their nature, exchange with the fermented product, the consequence being a modification of the physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties of these products. The objective of this work is to study the influence of the fermentation vessel on the sensory, physicochemical, and microbial properties of <em>kindirmou</em> and <em>pendidam</em>, two traditional fermented milks from Adamawa - Cameroon. To this end, a descriptive test was used to generate the sensory properties of fermented milks in different containers, followed by biochemical (pH, titratable acidity, protein, sugar content, and total phenolic compounds) and microbiological analyses (total aerobic mesophilic flora, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds). Regarding sensory evaluation, samples of <em>kindirmou</em> and <em>pendidam</em> fermented in calabashes have a higher general acceptability than those fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates. The total mesophilic flora and total coliforms were higher than the norm (≥ 6log10) for <em>kindirmou</em> and <em>pendidam</em> regardless of the fermentation vessel. The absence of yeasts and molds is noted in the samples of <em>kindirmou,</em> while they are found at very high levels in the samples of <em>pendidam</em> fermented in the calabash and in the enamel plates ((≥ 6log10). Fecal coliforms are absent in samples of <em>kindirmou</em> and <em>pendidam</em> fermented in the calabash, while they are found in samples fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates. On the physicochemical level, the results obtained showed that the <em>kindirmou</em> fermented in the calabash had the highest soluble protein content (1.47 ± 0.04 g / 100 mL of milk) than those fermented in plastic bucket and enamel plates. The phenolic compounds are present only in the samples of milk fermented in the calabash and the average contents are 93.41 ± 3.04 mg / 100 mL of milk for <em>kindirmou</em> and 111.20 ± 2.01 mg / 100 mL for <em>pendidam</em>.</p> <p>To conclude, <em>kindirmou</em> and <em>pendidam</em> fermented in calabashes exhibit the best sensory and physicochemical characteristics, and are rich in bioactive compounds than those fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates.</p> 2021-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Overview of the Ethnobotanic, Ethnopharmacological and Medicinal Importance of Edible Wild Root Tuber Orchids in Cameroon 2021-10-07T09:24:32+00:00 Dobgima John Fonmboh Tembe Estella Fokunang Ngwasiri Pride Ndasi Noumo Thierry Ngangmou Bayaga Herve Bengyella Louis Tita Kaba Christian Nubia Tita Margaret Awah Ejoh Richard Aba Charles Ntungwen Fokunang <p>Orchids are well known for their beautiful exotic flowers, and food-flavoring products which make them a resource of great economic importance in the global horticultural and food industries. In Cameroon, orchids are particularly important for their tubers which are used for food and traditional medicine. Orchids are therefore of considerable economic importance, traded within and across the regions and out of the country. Few research works have reported for these orchids in Cameroon exploring mostly identification and taxonomy. It is therefore the responsibility and duty of the local population to valorize the tubers for national use based on their awareness of the hidden potentials for food and medicine. Many people will have eaten orchids without realizing, due to the countless products in international trade that contain the seeds of artificially propagated&nbsp;<em>Vanilla</em>&nbsp;orchids. However, this legal trade is only one example of orchids being used as ingredients in food and drink. One example is the trade in chikanda, a cake made from the ground tubers of terrestrial orchids and consumed in several countries in Central and East Africa. Another product made from the ground tubers of terrestrial species is salep, which is used as an ingredient in hot drinks and ice cream and consumed mainly in Turkey and neighboring countries.</p> <p>The high exploitation with no biodiversity and conservation strategic plan by indigenes is a call for concern about the sustainability as future existence of these wild edible orchids is highly threatened; reason why orchids are on the international red list. This paper reviews the ethnobotanical and medicinal uses of orchid roots and tubers with a focus on Cameroon. The review highlights some of the areas that require more focus in terms of research and policy interventions, namely identification of all edible orchids, domestication of edible orchids, and trade controls. Focusing on Cameroon, this paper reviews and examines the edible root and tuber orchids developments based on information from some of the work that has been done in Cameroon, the ethnobotanic, ethnopharmacological and medicinal uses of these orchids.</p> 2021-08-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Methods for the Detection and Quantification of Micro and Nanoplastics- A Review 2021-10-12T01:54:34+00:00 S. Priyanka G. A. Pallavi Nayak N. Swathi Jawali D. Ashita <p>Over the past 35 years, synthetic or semi-synthetic polymers called “plastics” have been widely used across multiple fields due to their low cost, versatility, durability. Plastics have proved to be a boon to mankind. However, overuse of non- biodegradable plastics comes with its own downsides. Despite constant efforts to reuse and recycle plastics, these polymers substantially contribute towards the accumulation of debris hazardous to the environment. Plastic materials are slowly broken into fragments of micro- and nano plastics due to aging and weathering. Micro- and nano plastics were found capable of entering the food chain and hence are viewed as threats. This review paper revolves around methods used for the detection and quantification of micro- and nano plastics. Detection of micro- and nano plastics using methods like Raman spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy, SERS, MALDI-TOF, and machine learning approaches are discussed here. The research efforts carried out in this article aims to further facilitate the R&amp;D initiatives of Jozbiz Technologies.</p> 2021-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##