Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ranitidine (Zantac) Drug on the Hormonal Level, Sperm Head Abnormality and Histo-Architecture of the Testis of Albino Male Mice

Tiba Soud Oraibi, Ruqaya Mohammed Ibrahim, Sura Alaa Soud

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i130049

The purposes of this study are to determine the effect of Zantac (Ranitidine) drug on sexual hormones (Testosterone and Prolactin), sperm head abnormality, and histopathological activity on albino male mice testes.

Two doses of the drug were used: 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in addition to a negative control group. Each group included four mice and the drug administrated orally as (0.1 ml) per day for 14 days, and then the mice were sacrificed on the day 15 for laboratory assessment.

The result showed that the drug cause increase the percentage of sperm head abnormality which reaches to (48.3%) and (22.8%) for 2000 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively in comparison to control group (11.1%). The male sex hormones also affected by the drug and the level of testosterone hormone decrease to (1.07 ng/ml) in 2000 mg/kg and (3.42 ng/ml) in 1000 mg/kg, while the level of hormone in control group is (14.07 ng/ml). The prolactin hormone show increase in the level at dose 2000mg/kg it's (115 ng/ml) and in dose 1000 mg/kg the level its (43 ng/ml) these value very high compared with control group (36 ng/ml) due to the effect of the drug on the hormone. The histopathological examination shows damage in the seminal duct and changes in the wall of the seminiferous tube also the spermatogenesis well be affected by the drug in which is stop and some of seminal duct show no appearance of spermatogenesis and also cause depletion to the wall of the seminal duct.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Mediated Production of Bio-ethanol from the Rhizome of Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. (Spear Grass)

H. O. Stanley, V. B. Gbaje, I. O. Agbagwa, B. E. Okoli, C. J. Ugboma

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i130051

The microbial mediated production of bio-ethanol from the rhizome of Imperata cylindrica (spear grass) was carried out in this research work. Proximate analysis of the rhizome was done to determine the protein, carbohydrate, moisture, ash, lipid, and fibre contents. Sugar profile analysis was carried out using Gas Chromatography (GC).  The sugars obtained from the rhizome include ribose, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, fructose, glucose, maltose, lactose, and sucrose. Ethanol yield increased simultaneously from day 5 to day 20 for all reactors in six different experimental design i.e, Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone; Serratia marcescens alone, Aspergillus flavus + Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Apergillus  flavus + Saccharomyces cerevisiae + Serratia marcescens; Aspergillus flavus + Serratia marcescens including the control (containing no microorganism). The highest ethanol yield was achieved at pH 7 and temperature range between 280C to 380C. The reducing sugar decreased from 0.37 to 0.03 g/mol as the period of incubation increased while cell density increased from 0.1 to 0.68 nm as the period of incubation increased. Reactor containing co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Serratia marcescens and Aspergillus flavus in combination produced the highest ethanol yield at day 20 while the reactor containing only Serratia sp produced the lowest ethanol yield. This study has demonstrated that the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Serratia marcescens and Aspergillus flavus co-cultures is more effective in bio-ethanol production using I. cylindrica (spear grass) compared to individual cultures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profile of Haematological Parameters among Radiographers Exposed to Low-Dose X-Rays in Selected Port Harcourt Healthcare Facilities

Wejie-Okachi, Chinunam, Agi, Chukuemeka, Douglas, Kingsley

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i130052

X-rays are electromagnetic waves that can traverse the human body due to high energies (≥1.24 keV) and ultra-short wavelengths (≤10-10m). Acute exposures are harmful to human health, affecting hematopoietic systems among others. Workers experience these effects despite use of occupational exposure controls such as Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs). This study spanned May 2018 to February 2019, and was aimed at determining the effects of exposure to low-dose x-rays on haematological parameters of radiographers in Port-Harcourt. Delimitation was to a target population of radiographers who work for ≥ 6-hours daily and ≥ 5-days weekly, over ≥ 12-months, and a corresponding number of control subjects in five healthcare facilities. The cross-sectional retrospective comparative research design method was employed, and consisted of administered Questionnaire with a 100% response rate. Two sets of blood samples, collected 120 days apart, underwent clinical laboratory examinations.  30 exposed (case) and 30 unexposed (control) subjects, aged 25-54 years, participated in this study at a ratio of 1:1. Mean annual background x-ray room radiation level was 0.7724mSv (i.e. 0.6088mSv-0.8392mSv), and workers recorded 100% usage of PPEs and 86.7% (n=26) knowledge/awareness to adverse x-ray effects. Mean values for hematocrit, platelet, and mean cell volume, were higher, but White Blood Cells (WBCs) (P=0.025, 0.044), Neutrophils (P=0.018, 0.042), Lymphocytes (P=0.026, 0.025) were significantly lower, in the case vis-à-vis control groups. Haematological parameters showed no statistical differences between values for 1st and 2nd sample sets within each subject group. Normal blood cell morphologies predominated in the unexposed group (76.6% & 86.7%), when compared to the exposed group (53.3% & 50.0%), except for codocytes (z = -1.000, P=0.317). WBC values in radiographers inversely correlated with their duration of x-ray exposures (r = -0.431, P˂0.05).This study showed that chronic exposures to low-dose x-rays affect whole leucocyte parameters, despite implementation of PPEs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis and Cold Saponification of Wild Grapes (Lannea microcarpa Engl & K. Krause) Seed Oil

Aliyu Ahmad Warra, Hadiza Ibrahim Mohammed, Adejuwon Olorunsola Morayo

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i130053

Aims: Physico-chemical, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Cold saponification was carried out on Lannea microcarpa (Wild grape) seed oil with the aim of identifying the quality and quantity of the oil and its suitability in soap production.

Study Design: Experimental and instrumental study was done to determine the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids present in the seed oil and its suitability for soap production.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Biochemistry Laboratory, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria from May to June, 2014.

Methodology: The hexane extract of the sample was obtained by complete extraction using Soxhlet extractor, physicochemical analysis was carried out. A gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy detector (GC-MS) system was used for the qualitative fatty acid determination. Simple cold method saponification was used in producing the soap.

Results: The powdered seed (50 g) yielded 59.21±0.01% of the oil. Results from the physicochemical analysis showed the seed oil to be dark purple in colour and partially soluble in water with the acid, iodine, saponification and peroxide values at  16± 0.01 mgKOH/g, 121.6±0.1 gI2/100 g, 231.25±0.02 mgKOH/g,  3.02±0.01 meq H2O2respectively. The relative density and refractive index of the oil are at 0.5983±0.0001 (g/cm3) and 1.43±0.01 respectively. Qualitative GC-MS revealed the following fatty acids; Decanoic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Margaric acid, 1-octadecanoic  acid, Oleic and Erucic acid. The soap produced from the seed oil has pH and Foam height, 10.18±0.01 and 105.1±0.1 (cm³) respectively.

Conclusion: The present study on seeds of wild grape revealed that the oil is a viable natural product that can be utilized in thefood and cosmetic industry.

Open Access Review Article

Challenges and Environmental Impacts of Biomass Energy in South Asia

Agnihotri Devanshu, Sagar Mamta, Singh Brijendra

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i130050

Plants utilise solar energy to synthesise food during photosynthesis as it provides biomaterials needed for generation of bio-energy. A byproduct of natural and biological sources can be used as a source of bioenergetics; it is a good replacement for carbon energy or fossil fuel. In this article, a variety of biomasses, its impacts on the environment and challenges in production are discussed coherently. This study focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of Biomass-derived fuels and its utilisation in Asia. Production of Sugarcane, Palm oil and Sorghum is compared among all Asian countries. Current research on palm oil effluents revealed that oil palm was a more energy friendly crop and oil palm cultivation under current practices posed no risk to the environment. Comparative reports on consumption of fuels and Biomass trade have been discussed Introduction of four fuel and fifth fuel strategy ensure reliability and security of energy supply which includes petroleum, natural gas, hydropower and coal to reduce consumption of petroleum. In Malaysia, Petroleum dependence has been drastically reduced from 98% in 1980 to 8% in 1999. Recently, fifth fuel renewable energy is introduced by government which provide an alternative to the other sources of energy. Biomass fuels are a sustainable, efficient and viable source of energy. It can be generated from a waste material which also provides an efficient way of waste management. Countries with high agricultural resources can look forward to biomass energy production. In the coming years, biomass energy will be a small but significant part of the energy. This may be beneficial in increasing the economy of a country. Biomass energy can be achieved with a high success rate with the help of advanced technology, effective government policies, and international trade.