Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Ogi from Acha (Digitaria exilis), Soybean (Glycine max) and Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Composite Flour

Moses Terkula Ukeyima, Israel Okpunyi Acham, Comfort Temitope Awojide

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i230054

Ogi was produced from composite flour of fermented Acha, roasted Soybean and Carrot.  The raw materials were blended in varying proportions. Proximate composition, functional properties and sensory characteristics of the formulated Ogi samples were evaluated. The results of the proximate composition showed a significant increase in moisture (5.36% to 9.94%), protein (3.94% to 16.98%), fat (1.89% to 10.23%), crude fiber (1.80% to 3.12%) and ash (0.35% to 0.99%); while a decrease was observed in carbohydrate (86.66% to 58.74%) with increase in supplementation with roasted Soybean flour and constant addition of carrot flour along with the milk flavor. The functional properties showed significant increase in foam capacity (5.99% to 7.97%), Swelling index (2.46 v/v to 3.08 v/v) and Least gelation capacity (8.10% to 14.0%); while a decrease was observed in bulk density (0.84 g/mL to 0.72 g/mL), water absorption capacity (1.40% to 1.10%) and foaming stability (3.39% to 2.79%). Sensory characteristics result revealed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in aroma and overall acceptability with increasing incorporation of roasted Soybean flour and constant addition of Carrot flour with milk flavor. Aside the control sample (containing 100% fermented Acha flour) there was preference for Sample C (70% fermented Acha flour: 15% roasted Soybean flour: 10% Carrot flour: 5% Milk flavor) and Sample D (60% fermented Acha flour: 25% roasted Soybean flour: 10% `Carrot flour: 5% Milk flavor) in terms of color (6.65 and 6.25), taste (6.95 and 6.35), aroma (6.45 and 6.30), mouth feel (6.10 and 6.35) and overall acceptability (6.50 and 6.50) respectively, among the blend formulations. Supplementation of fermented Acha with roasted Soybean and Carrot flour considerably increased the protein and fat contents of the blend; hence Soybean should be used for supplementation of cereal based product in order to improve their nutritional composition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Molecular Analysis of the 5 Candidate Genes of Suidae Family Related to African Swine Fever Occurrence

O. O. Oluwole

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i230056

Suidae family consisting, domestic pig, warthog and babyrousa are identified with even hooves and snout nose. They have been reported to be tolerant to African swine fever virus (ASFV) with the exception of the domestic pig. Domestic pig is valuable for humans as a source of protein all over the world, but is more susceptible to this disease. ASFV has been found in warthog and bush pig. Five candidate genes, RELA, PPP3CB, PPIA, NFKBIA, and NFATC1 have been suggested to be responsible for the genetic variation between the components of Suidae family, which may contribute to the species-specific responses to ASFV infection. This study aims to investigate the evolution, differentiation and functional function of these five genes in three species of Suidae family that are either susceptible or tolerant to ASFV using molecular computational genetics.

The nucleotide and amino acid sequence (aas) of the 5 genes of pig, warthog and babyrousa were downloaded from NCBI, Essembel geneome browser, and Uniprot database. They were aligned and analysed to predict functional effect of amino acid substitution as deleterious or neutral for small insertions and deletions.

The candidate genes were observed to have variants with the exception of NFKBIA. They were observed to have deleterious variants. These deleterious variants may be responsible for the susceptibility or tolerance of this family to ASF disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Fermented Maize-meal Infusion on Feed Efficiency, Growth Performance and Antioxidants Status of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

A. Aliyu-A, M. Aliyu-Paiko, J. Abafi, A. Abdul-Malik, K. M. Adamu, M. A. King

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i230057

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermented maize-meal infusion on feed quality, growth performance and immune status of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus fingerlings.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria, between March 2017 and July 2017.

Methodology: A total of 120 African catfish, Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (mean initial weight 7.43±0.24 grams) were randomly distributed into 2 groups of 3 replicates each. Each replicate contained 20 fish. Fermented feed (FF) produced using fermented maize-meal (ogi) infusion for 72 h was fed 5% body weight to a group of 60 fish (in 3 replicates) for 10 weeks, compared to fish fed control pellet containing similar ingredients but was non-fermented (NF). Proximate composition of feeds and whole fish, feed efficiency and growth performance, biochemical and antioxidant parameters in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus were evaluated.

Results: The results of proximate composition of FF and NF diets were not significantly (P>0.05) different in crude protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate and moisture contents. However, fat (lipid) was significantly lower in FF diet, while the level of ash was significantly (P<0.05) higher in FF than in the NF control. Proximate composition of whole fish fed NF and FF diets are significantly similar for crude protein, crude fibre, fat and carbohydrate contents. However, ash and moisture contents were significantly higher in fish fed NF than FF. The results for feed efficiency and growth performance of African catfish fed experimental diets indicated similar feed acceptance and intake and consequently similar growth performance. The hematological indices; packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) were observed to be significantly higher in fish fed the FF diet. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly elevated in serum of fish administered the non-fermented diet while alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) indicated elevated activities in fish fed fermented diet. The chloride and potassium ions and cholesterol indicated significantly higher concentration in the serum of fish fed fermented diet. Conversely, the inorganic phosphate, calcium, total protein and triglycerides were significantly higher in the serum of fish fed the non-fermented diet. Contrastingly, the concentration of sodium ion and creatinine did not differ significantly between the fish fed the experimental diets. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly elevated in the serum of fish fed FF diet.

Conclusion: Fermented diet with probiotics from maize-meal infusion improved biochemical and antioxidant parameters of Clarias gariepinus without impairing fish performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioconversion of Sawdust and Paper Treaded with Edible Fungus (Pleurotus pulmonarius)

Jesupemi Mercy Enibukun, Sunday Ademola Laba

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i230058

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Pleurotus pulmonarius on proximate composition and solid-state fermentation of sawdust and waste paper, and to quantify the soluble sugar produced in the biodegraded samples. Studies were carried out on the biodegradation of sawdust and paper using P. pulmonarius in cultures incubated for 90 days. The results of proximate analysis showed decrease in moisture content crude fiber and hemicellulose, while ash and cellulose were increased. Sawdust has higher soluble sugar content at 30-90 days of fermentation. The crude fibre decreased significantly from 45.5% to 32.4%, 48.2% to 32.9%, 55.5% to 32.8%, 53.4 to 32.1%, 44.5% to 27.5% for sawdust (SD), paper-waste (PW), and three proportional ratio mixtures (PW1:SD3, PW3:SD1, PW1:SD1) substrates respectively. The nutrient contents, pH values, (%) fiber fractions showed significant differences of (P≤0.05) in the five substrates as the fermentation. Lignin contents of treated paper waste and sawdust were degraded by P. pulmonarius and a decrease was observed. There were also consistent significant decreases (P< 0.05) in the values obtained for NDF, ADF, ADL. Percentage NDF 75.4% to 57.32%, 68.1% to 57.05%, 67.21% to 56.8%, 75.49% to 58.36%, 74.3% to 59.13% for SD, PW, PW1:SD3, PW3:SD1, and PW1:SD1 substrates, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the hemicellulose and cellulose contents. The results obtained from the bioconversion process of selected wastes reveals the potential of extracellular enzymes produced by P. pulmonarius as a biotechnological tool for the transformation of waste in biological product.

Open Access Review Article

Fermentation of Feed Ingredients as Potential Strategy to Improve Health Status and Reduce Opportunistic Pathogens in Fish Farming

A. Aliyu-A, M. Aliyu-Paiko, J. Abafi, A. Abdul-Malik, K. M. Adamu, M. A. King

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i230055

The rapid increase in fish farming has been affected by outbreak of diseases and erratic feed costs. These challenges have stimulated increase in the use of antibiotics to rear fish. Unfortunately, excessive use of antibiotics inhibits or kills beneficial gut microbiota and makes antibiotic residues to accumulate in fish products, which are harmful for human consumption. The use of biological strategies has therefore, been adopted to improve health status, growth performance and reduce predisposition of fish to diseases. This has become necessary in view of the EU ban on most antibiotics used as growth promoters in animal husbandry due to their roles in the production of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, use of the natural fermentation process, which utilizes functional and safe microbes to transform large and potentially harmful chemical constituents in fish feed to less harmful or safe states have been contemplated in aquaculture. In the present review, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) activity during feed fermentation to mediate positive effects in farmed fish is highlighted, including; modulation of gastrointestinal pH, production of bacteriocins, competitive inhibition and translocation of pathogenic bacteria in the GIT. Other potentials of fermentation to promote feed efficiency and growth performance in fish are also discussed.