Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Inclusion of Fermented Parkia in Feeds as an Organic Strategy to Improve Feed Quality and Antioxidant Parameters of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fingerlings

J. Abafi, M. Aliyu-Paiko, K. M. Adamu, M. A. King

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i330059

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess fermented parkia infusion in feed as organic strategy to improve feed quality and immune system of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria, between 1st January 2017 and 25th March 2017.

Methodology: In the present study, feed ingredients were fermented for 72 hrs with probiotic starter culture from Parkia biglobosa (TF diet) in comparison to a control diet with similar ingredients to the experimental diets but totally unfermented (CF diet) and used to make feed pellets. The experimental feeds were fed at 5% of body weight of each dietary treatment to triplicate groups of 20 fish per tank (100 Liter capacity), two times daily for 10 weeks. Proximate composition and mineral content of diets and whole fish, Feed efficiency, growth performance and Biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated.

Results: The result of proximate compositions of experimental diets revealed a significantly higher protein and ash contents in TF compared to the CF. Carbohydrate content was significantly lower in TF diet while crude fibre, moisture and fat contents were not significantly higher in CF compared to TF. The highest values of some minerals such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) were also recorded in the TF while the least was recorded in CF. The result of feed efficiency and growth performance indicated similar feed acceptance and intake between fish fed the fermented diet and the control. The activities of serum antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in serum of fish fed TF compared to that in fish fed CF diet.

Conclusion: It can be deduced from this study that the fermented diet improved the immunity of fish and does not adversely affect the growth performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation Amount of Sperm Cells in the First Generation of Nontransgenic and Transgenic Mutiara Catfish Hybrid

Ibnu Dwi Buwono, Yuli Andriani, Walim Lili, Paksi Setyo Nugroho

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i330060

One of the factors that influence the success of catfish spawning, including male broodstock gonad fertility determine differences in the number of the sperm produced. The use of transgenesis technology (insertion of the exogenous growth hormone gene) in catfish shows an influence especially multiplication of the sperm counts. The purpose of this study was to compare the variations in the number of sperm cells of the male transgenic Mutiara catfish (comprising the African catfish growth hormone gene) with nontransgenic Mutiara. These research was conducted at the Fish Hatchery, Fisheries Biotechnology Laboratory, and Central Laboratory of Padjadjaran University. The experimental method was used completely randomized design and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The male catfish broodstock were used as treatments consists of the first generation transgenic Mutiara hybrids with nontransgenic Mutiara (G1_MT-MNT), transgenic Mutiara hybrids with Sangkuriang (G1_MTS), and Sangkuriang (G1_S). The sperm from testes of each broodstock were  used  as  replications for sperm count test parameters and motility (n = 5). Qualitative analysis was used for the identification parameters of the transgenic male broodstock using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sperm volume. Quantitative analysis uses the Sigma Plot 12.0 program for parameters for sperm cell count and sperm motility. The results showed that the highest number of sperm (6.06 x 106 cells) and the highest motility (score 4.2) were found in the broodstock of the G1_MT-MNT male catfish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Ability of Several White-rot Fungi to Biobleach Acacia Oxygen-delignified Kraft Pulp

Sitompul Afrida, Toshihiro Watanabe, Yutaka Tamai

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i330061

Previous screening analyses demonstrated that the in vivo biobleaching activities of the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 are higher than those of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor. The purpose of the current study was to examine the production of extracellular enzymes of these four white-rot fungi grown on three types of low-cost media containing agricultural and forestry waste, and to evaluate the ability of the produced extracellular enzymes to biobleach Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp (A-OKP). The biobleaching activity of extracellular fractions of I. lacteus, L. tigrinus, T. versicolor, and P. chrysosporium cultures was the most pronounced after 3 days of incubation with Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and 1% glucose (WRBG) with resultant Kappa number reduction of 4.4%, 6.7%, 3.3%, and 3.3%, respectively. Therefore, biobleaching ability of I. lacteus and L. tigrinus have been shown to be higher than of T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, both in vivo and in vitro.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Bioreactor Technology Assisted Plant Suspension Culture

Renugaa Su, M. Sujarani, P. Shalini, N. Prabhu

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i330062

This review is related to bioreactors for plant suspension culture and its products. Bioreactor plays an important role in bioprocess engineering. The core of bioprocessing technology is the bioreactor. A bioreactor is basically a device in which the organisms are cultivated and helps in production of desired products in a contained environment. Bioreactors are usually a containment which provides optimal condition for microorganisms in order to produce desired products. In this review, the bioreactor’s principle, working and its types are discussed. Enclosed by unit operations that carry out physical changes for medium preparation and recovery of products, the reactor is where the major chemical and biochemical transformations occur. In many bioprocess, characteristic of the reaction determined to a large extent the economic feasibility of the project. The integration of biosynthesis and separation is considered as a possible approach towards more efficient plant cell and tissue culture. In this review article, the aspects of bioprocess engineering for plant suspension culture and its products, bioreactor types, optimized strategies for production of secondary metabolites also and its industrial applications.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Production of Polygalacturonase Using Various Organisms and Its Applications

A. Radha, R. Sneha, R. Kiruthiga, P. Priyadharshini, N. Prabhu

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2019/v5i330063

Polygalacturonase is a pectinolytic enzyme that catalyses the hydrolytic cleavage of the polygalacturonic linkage chain. An enzyme is a polygalacturonase is expressed in fruits. The polygalacturonase produced from various organisms isolated from various fruits. The solid-state fermentation was used in the production of polygalacturonase. The production of PG was found at various incubation period and pH and temperature are using fruits as best nitrogen and carbon sources. Although they have other parts of the genome they are active in the fruit. Peak expression requires a full range of promoter and saturation lines. Based on the physicochemical properties of the purified enzymes, this enzyme possesses great potential for industrial and biotechnological application such as oil extraction, fruit clarifications.