Open Access Data Article

Data on the Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain AN2 Isolated from Agricultural Soil in Brazil

Andressa Sbano, Juliana B. Succar, João Victor R. Ferreira, Lidiane C. Berbert, Vinicius R. Flores, Janaína J. V. Cavalcante, Rodolpho M. Albano, Ida Carolina N. Direito, Alexander M. Cardoso

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 11-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i130071

Aims: This research aims to report the genome sequence of the Bacillus sp. strain AN2, isolated from agricultural soil from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Western Rio Janeiro State University in Brazil, between January 2019 and December 2019.

Methodology: High-quality genomic DNA was extracted using a GenElute Bacterial Genomic DNA kit. The Nextera XT DNA Library Prep Kit was used for genomic library construction. Paired-end sequence reads were generated by an Illumina MiSeq instrument with the 600 cycles MiSeq Reagent Kit v3. Sequence data were assembled with A5-MiSeq pipeline software and the contigs were annotated by Rapid Annotation using Subsystems Technology (RAST).

Results: The obtained genome sequence of Bacillus AN2 included 21 contigs with a calculated size of 3,681,081 bp in length. The G + C content for the draft genome is 41.4%. A total of 3824 coding sequences (CDS) were predicted and encoded at least 88 tRNAs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Carrier Substances for the Development of an Effective Pelleted Biofertilizer for Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Using Co-inoculated Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

B. K. W. Pathirana, P. N. Yapa

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i130070

Aims: This study was aimed to compare aquatic weed, biochar and compost carrier substances for the development of effective pelleted biofertilizer for paddy (Oryza sativa L.) using co-inoculated bacteria, Azospirillum sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF).

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Applied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale, Sri Lanka between November 2018 and May 2019.

Methodology: Pre-sterilized, 1 kg weight of ground carrier material was inoculated with 50 g of AMF propagules and 20 ml of 1.5 x 108 (CFU/ml) of each bacterial inoculant. Different types of pelleted biofertilizers were prepared as; aquatic weed and bioinoculum (P1), aquatic weed, bioinoculum and nutrient supplement mixture (P2), biochar and bioinoculum (P3), biochar, bioinoculum and nutrient supplement mixture (P4), compost and bioinoculum (P5), compost, bioinoculum and nutrient supplement mixture (P6). Rock phosphate and potassium feldspar was used as nutrient supplement mixture in developing some pelleted biofertilizers. Biofertilizer pellets were tested for the microbial survivability with the time by determining viable cell count of bacteria at two storage temperatures of 0°C and 30°C.

Pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of prepared pelleted biofertilizers on growth and yield of rice and on some soil chemical and biological characteristics. Control (without biofertilizers) and above pelleted biofertilizers were added to the 3000 g of soil in pot with one paddy plant of variety BG 360. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replicates. Rice roots were screened for AMF colonization after harvesting.

Results: According to Tukey’s Pairwise Comparison test, control and different treatments in pot experiment were significantly different for shoot height, number of seeds per panicle, 100 seeds weight and soil pH (p ≤ 0.05). However, there was no significant difference observed for bacterial count in prepared biofertilizers and biofertilizer applied soil, relative growth rate, plant dry and fresh weights and electrical conductivity. Among different pelleted biofertilizers, application of pellets consisted of compost with bioinoculant (P5), exceedingly enhanced the rice growth and yield. Compost, bioinoculum and nutrient supplement mixture (P6) added pellets were shown highest bacterial survivability at 30°C for seven days. Although AMF colonization of rice plants were low this was the first report of citing the presence of AMF in rice roots in Sri Lanka.

Conclusion: These pelleted biofertilizers have the potential to be used for improved productivity of rice variety Bg 360. Therefore, developing such bioinoculants as biofertilizers and their efficient use could be considered as a sustainable solution for rice cultivation in Sri Lanka and worldwide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Cookies from Malted Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Sprouted Soybean (Glycine max) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Flour Blends

Dinnah Ahure, Pius Oteikwu Ejoha

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 14-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i130072

Quality and acceptability of cookies produced from malted sorghum, wheat, and blends of malted sorghum, sprouted soybean and carrot flours were evaluated. Malted sorghum flour was enriched with sprouted soybean and carrot to produce cookies with varying amount of sproted sorghum and carrot (100:0:0, 80:10:10, 70:20:10, 60:30:10 and 50:40:10). The chemical, physical and sensory attributes of cookies were evaluated with results showing significant (p<0.05) differences. Results of chemical compositions of Composite flours and composite cookies showed similar trends. The ranges of cookies contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, energy spread ratio and general acceptability include 5.25–6.79%, 9.88–17.46%, 12.04–18.99%, 0.81–4.67%, 1.34–3.78%, 51.25–68.62%, 422.4–459.19 Kcal, 6.53–7.79 and 7.11–7.98. Generally, all nutrients analysed increased with increased substitution of sprouted soybean and carrot flours into mated sorghum flour except moisture and carbohydrates. The results revealed that inclusion of 40% sprouted soybean and 10% carrot into malted sorghum served a complementary purpose in increasing cookies spread ratio and most of the nutrients analysed. Whereas, sensory scores of cookies with 10% sprouted soybean and 10% carrot inclusion compared favourably with the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Sensory Properties of Wine Produced from Blends of Roselle Calyces Extract and Pineapple Juice

B. O. Idoko, M. T. Ukeyima, G. M. Gberikon, O. O. Olaleye

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 28-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i130073

Wine was produced from must formulated by blending roselle calyces extract with pineapple juice at different ratios (v/v): A (100:0), B(90:10), C(80:20), D(70:30), E(60:40) and F(50:50). The must was pitched with Saccharomyces cerevisiae; primary and secondary fermentation lasted for five and three days, respectively, during which aliquot samples analyses of pH, titratable acidity, specific gravity, total soluble solids and alcohol were carried out daily using standard procedures.Wine was aged for 31 days. The pH of the must decreased during the period of fermentation with a range of 3.30 to 4.37. Specific gravity and total soluble solids were observed to reduce drastically as fermentation progressed. During the fermentation period, consistent increase in titratable acidity and alcohol was observed with time. At the end of fermentation (8th day), alcohol content ranged from 10.19 to 12.23% with sample B and C having the highest values. Vitamin C analyses carried out on the wines had values ranging from 2.50 to 8.40g/100mL. Wines had volatile acid values range of 0.06 to 0.13g/100mL which was within acceptable limits. Sensory evaluation on a 9-point hedonic scale carried out on the aged wine indicated that all samples were accepted except sample F which had scores below average. Sample B was rated highest in terms of overall acceptability with value of 7.41±1.06. The result of this study showed that acceptable wines can be produced from blends of roselle hot water extract and pineapple juice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation on Tannase Production by Lasiodiplodia plurivora ACN-10 under Submerged Fermentation (SmF) and Solid State Fermentation (SSF)

Francis Sopuruchukwu Ire, Adaugo Chinwendu Nwanguma

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 39-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i130074

Aim: Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase, E.C. catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds from complex hydrolysable tannins with the production of gallic acid and glucose and possess broad applications in biotechnology. This study is aimed at the production of tannase by Lasiodiplodia plurivora ACN-10 in SmF and SSF using Terminalia cattapa (almond leaves) and Magnifera indica (mango leaves) as substrates.

Study Design: The design adopted to evaluate the production of tannase is submerged (SmF) and solid state (SSF) fermentation.

Study Area: Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos State Nigeria.

Methodology: Fifteen different soil samples were indiscriminately collected within Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria and were inoculated on PDA plates at 30°C for 3-5 days. A total of 30 isolates was screened on Czapek dox minimal agar incorporated with 1% tannic acid and plates were incubated for 96 h at 30°C. Fungal isolates which were able to disintegrate tannic acid produced a clear halo zone around the colony diameter and were selected to be positive for tannase activity. The best isolate was identified based on its morphological, microscopic and molecular characteristics. Thereafter production and extraction of tannase was carried out in SmF for 0-120 h and in SSF for 0-144 h using Terminalia cattapa (Almond leaves) and Magnifera indica (Mango leaves) as substrates.

Results: The total fungal count ranged from 1.0×104 to 3.5×105 CFU/g. A total of 30 fungal isolates produced clear halo zones (ranging from 20 to 70 mm) around the colonies during the screening with tannic acid. Isolate ACN-10, which showed the highest tannic degradation was identified based on its morphological and microscopic characteristics. On the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequence studies, the isolate was identified as Lasiodiplodia plurivora strain ACN-10 and the sequence was submitted to the Genbank with the accession number: MG250374. Results obtained in this study indicated that both substrates can be used by the isolate for tannase production in both SmF and SSF. The result of our investigation on the use of Terminalia cattapa (almond leaves) and Magnifera indica (mango leaves) as substrates for tannase production showed that optimum yield (6.064 U/ml) was obtained at 120 h in SSF while optimum production (4.623 U/ml) was observed in SmF at 96 h using Terminalia cattapa as substrate.

Conclusion: Results obtained from this study indicated higher tannase production in solid-state fermentation compared to submerged fermentation. This is the first report to the best of our knowledge that Lasiodiplodia plurivora strain is implicated in tannase secretion. The result also demonstrated high production of extracellular tannases from low cost substrates which can be optimized and scaled up for industrial processes.