Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on Some Hematological Parameters of Male Wistar Rats

Ijeoma Ezebuiro, Chibuike Obiandu, Friday Saronee, Ikechukwu I. Weleh, Adesua C. Obiandu

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i330080

Introduction: Medicinal plants have become increasingly useful as a form of alternative therapy. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is a medicinal plant applied in folklore remedies in the treatment and prevention of various diseases.

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on some hematological parameters of male Wistar rats.

Methodology: A total of 15 male Wistar rats weighing between 100-250 g were randomly placed in groups. Group 1 served as control and received distilled water only; group 2 received 200 mg/kg and group 3 received 400 mg/kg of the hydromethanolic leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius. Extract was administered once daily using oro-gastric cannula for 30 days. Blood samples were collected by direct cardiac puncture into appropriate sample tubes for estimation of hematological parameters including red blood cell count (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count.

Results: Results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in RBC, PCV, Hb and platelet count with the higher dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract compared to control group. However, the WBC count was not significantly (P>0.05) altered.

Conclusion: Oral administration of the leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius increases red blood cell count, packed cell volume, hemoglobin level and platelet count at 400 mg/kg body weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Stems at Varying Moisture Contents

S. A. Fagbemi

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 6-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i330081

The physical and mechanical properties of Nigerian variety Kenaf stems Ibadan Local were studied. Plant height was ranged from 224 cm to 327 cm and maximum stem diameter was ranged from 15 mm to 50 mm. The mechanical properties revealed that maximum cutting force and shearing energy were 1778.62 N and 10.20 J, respectively for 37% moisture content while it was 742.67 N and 3.74 J for 77% moisture content. The Young’s modulus ranged from 60.04 – 266.80 MPa. The greater shearing energy was obtained at the base of the stem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Mycobacteria in Clinical Samples by the Newly Developed PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit

Jong-Hee Choo, Chang-Ki Kim, Young-Kil Park

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 11-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i330082

Aims: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit. 

Study Design: Compared with the licensed AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time PCR.

Place and Duration of Study: SCL and PaxGenBio in Gyeonggi-do, Korea, between August 2018 and May 2019.

Methodology: In this study, 350 specimens including sputum, bronchial washing, body fluid, tissue, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid were examined to evaluate the performance of the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit compared to results of the currently licensed AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time PCR (LG Chem, Korea).

Results: Compared to the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time PCR, the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit test was found to possess a 100% sensitivity. In other words, all 140 MTB and 61 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) specimens that tested positive with the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time PCR also tested positive with the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit. However, the specificity of the later kit found to be 97.9% (146/149; 95% CI 95.6–100.0), meaning that out of 149 MTB/NTM specimens that tested negative with the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time PCR, 146 were identified as MTB/NTM-negative according to the PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit. Nonetheless, the overall agreement between the two diagnostic tools was 99.1% (347/350; 95% CI 98.1– 100.0) and the kappa value was 0.982 (350; 95% CI 0.968 – 0.995), meaning that the two diagnostic tools rendered almost identical results.

Conclusion: The PaxView TB/NTM MPCR-ULFA Kit could be useful to identify MTB and NTM in resource-limited countries, as this procedure is far more cost-effective than real-time PCR and convenient than conventional gel electrophoresis approaches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Steeping and Malting Regimen on the Amylolytic Activities of Some Improved Nigerian Sorghum Grain Varieties

Chukwudi I. Nnamchi, Udochukwu P. Anyim, Tochukwu S. Eziechinam, Onyetugo C. Amadi

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i330084

Three Nigerian improved sorghum varieties were evaluated to ascertain how different steeping and malting regimen affect their amylolytic enzyme development. Steeping incorporated air rest and continuous steep regime for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn every 12 h. Germination was then carried out for four days before kilning at 50°C for 24 h. Grain and malt parameters were examined. Results obtained showed variations in the response of sorghum root length to steep regimen and time. CSR-02 gave maximum root length (3.32 cm) after 72 h of air rested steeping. CSR-02, Samsorg 44 and Samsorg 14 had germinative energies of 92.00 ± 4.24, 94.00 ± 1.41 and 96.00 ± 1.41%; germinative capacities of 91.00 ± 1.41, 75.50 ± 2.12 and 88.00 ± 2.83; water sensitivities of 6.50 ± 2.12, 13.50 ± 1.44 and 1.00 ± 0.41 respectively. TKW results were 29.73 ± 0.32, 33.85 ± 1.54 and 33.51 ± 0.41 kg for CSR-02, Samsorg 44 and Samsorg 14 respectively. Variations in the response of the sorghum varieties to various conditions of steep regime and steep period were also observed. Steeping for 48 h seems to be the optimum time for the development of amylolytic activity in all the sorghum varieties at both steeping regimens. Samsorg 14 gave the highest total amylase activity (355.44 µg glucose equivalents), followed by Samsorg 44 (278.08 µg glucose equivalents). Samsorg 14 also showed the highest α-amylase development (276.93 µg glucose equivalents). Air rest was found to be show greater effect on β-amylase development in all the sorghum varieties.

Open Access Review Article

Update of Regulatory Options of New Breeding Techniques and Biosafety Approaches among Selected Countries: A Review

Silas Obukosia, Olalekan Akinbo, Woldeyesus Sinebo, Moussa Savadogo, Samuel Timpo, Modupe Adeyemo, Sunday Akile, Jean Kebere, Jeremy Ouedraogo, Aggrey Ambali, Diran Makinde

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 18-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2020/v6i330083

A new set of breeding techniques, referred to as New Breeding Techniques developed in the last two decades have potential for enhancing improved productivity in crop and animal breeding globally. These include site directed nucleases based genomic editing procedures-CRISPR and Cas associated proteins, Zinc Finger Nucleases, Meganucleases/Homing Endonucleases and Transcription- Activator Like-Effector Nucleases for genome editing and other technologies including- Oligonucleotide-Directed Mutagenesis, Cisgenesis and intragenesis, RNA-Dependent DNA methylation; Transgrafting, Agroinfiltration, Reverse breeding. There are ongoing global debates on whether the processes of and products emerging from these technologies should be regulated as genetically modified organisms or approved as conventional products. Decisions on whether to regulate as GMOs are based both on understanding of the molecular basis of their development and if the GMO intermediate step was used. For example- cisgenesis, can be developed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens methods of transformation, a process used by GMO but if the selection is properly conducted the intermediate GMO elements will be eliminated and the final product will be identical to the conventionally developed crops. Others like Site Directed Nuclease 3 are regulated as GMOs in countries such as United State of America, Canada, European Union, Argentina, Australia. Progress in genome editing research, testing of genome edited bacterial blight resistant rice, development of Guidelines for regulating new breeding techniques or genome editing in Africa is also covered with special reference to South Africa, Kenya and Nigeria. Science- and evidence-based approach to regulation of new breeding techniques among regulators and policy makers should be strongly supported.