Open Access Original Research Article

Activity of α-amylase Produced by Aspergillus niger at Different pH, Temperature and Incubation Time Using Solid-state Fermentation Process of Corn and Wheat Wastes

Musa Sale Makeri, Muntari Bala, Solomon Peter Wante, Kwaya Vawanje Bitrus, Habiba Usman Aliyu

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i230095

In Nigeria, agro by-products have not been fully utilized by many and often discarded at the dumping site. This anthropogenic activity is contributing to an increase in pollution and is a threat to public health. Environmental sustainability requires the wise use of resources that include agro by-products. Therefore, there is a need to utilize the agro by-product for the production of enzymes such as α-amylase. α -amylase is one of the important extracellular enzymes with several uses. The development of suitable technology to produce enzymes at a very lower cost is significant. The solid-state fermentation (SSF) process using corn and wheat wastes as a substrate have been utilized. In this study, Aspergillus niger from abattoir effluent was identified, isolated and used for the production of an enzyme (α-amylase). The study evaluated the effect of temperature, pH and incubation period on the activities of α-amylase produced by Aspergillus niger. The activity of α-amylase was found to be higher at pH 6.5 and temperature above 50oC. At 4 days incubation of the solid-state fermentation of corn and wheat wastes, α-amylase activities produced were 90.61 Unit/mL and 87.34 Unit/mL respectively. Also in this study, 3-dimensional presentation of the pH, temperature and incubation time were evaluated. The result presented an optimal condition for amylase activity produced by Aspergillus niger.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Discriminant Analysis on the Forest Muturu Cattle in Different Locations in Southern Zone of Nigeria

Sheidi Suleiman Shaibu, D. S. Gwaza, J. O. Egahi, H. Elkana

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i230096

About 238 mature Forest Muturu cattle were sampled from Southern Nigeria (Enugu, Imo, Delta, Anambra and Ebonyi) States. Discriminant analysis was performed on the effects of location using body weight and body linear parameters. Horn length was the only parameter selected for stepwise discriminant analysis to separate the populations of forest Muturu bulls. Horn length, muzzle circumference, body length, chest girt and ear length were the selected parameters by stepwise discriminant analysis to separate the forest Muturu cows populations. The strength of the canonical correlation model to explain the variations between the groups 0.615, 0.450, 0.364 and 0.335 for functions 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively among cows and 0.71, 0.59, 0.50 and 0.29 for functions 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively among bulls. Location was found to influence body parameters. There is need to carry out further study to assess performance characterization of the Forest Muturu cattle in Nigeria to identify the superior genetic grades base on economic traits which may be useful in establishing necleous breeding center.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Vitamins C and E on Spermeogram and Malondialdehyde Concentration in Chilled Semen of Nigerian Indigenous Turkey Toms (Meleagris gallopavo)

W. O. Echekwu, J. M. Madu, R. O. Okeke, I. G. Opaluwa-Kuzayed, E. S. Idoga, I. O. Suleiman, D. S. Bunjah Umar

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i230097

The study aims to evaluate the effect of antioxidant vitamins C and E on spermeogram and malondialdehyde concentration in chilled semen of Nigerian indigenous turkey toms (Meleagris gallopavo). The results from this study showed that supplementation of the diluents of turkey semen with antioxidants resulted in improvement in spermatozoa motility, pH, volume and   reduced rate of lipid peroxidation compared to the control (T0).  Vitamin E recorded a better result in relation to motility, viability and   lipid peroxidation rate better than a combination of vitamin C and E. Improvement in semen concentration of turkey tom were recorded in the semen of turkey extended with vitamin C. These results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation is a significant factor affecting the fertility of stored turkey sperm and those methods to prevent or reduce lipid peroxidation remain to be elucidated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Microbial Quality of Braised Products from Bangangte City and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Selected Pathogens Isolated Therein

Majeste Mbiada Pahane, Hippolyte Tene Mouafo, Thierry Ngangmou Noumo, Ingrid Cecile Djuikoue, Christian Nyondo, Mervie Noel Tchamba, François Tchoumbougnang, Léopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Nicolas Yanou Njintang

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 30-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i230098

The present study had as objective to assess the microbiological quality and profile of some braised products and their accompanying soups sold in the city of Bangangte (Cameroon) and evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of selected pathogens isolated in these products. An investigation was conducted in three locations in city of Bangangte in order to assess the environment and working conditions as well as the respect of good hygiene practices. Then, samples of braised fish (05) and its soups (05), and braised chicken (05) and its soups (05) were collected from six vendors in each location. The samples (360) were submitted to microbiological analyses and the isolates were identified at species level using API gallery. The susceptibility of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were tested. The 72 participants involved in this study declared having knowledge on hygiene despite the fact that, most of them had no formal education and do not apply good hygiene practices. Microbiological analyses revealed the poor quality of all the samples of braised products. Fecal coliforms and staphylococci counts higher than the values recommended by norms demonstrated the non-respect of good hygiene and manufacturing practices during the braising activity. The 169 strains isolated from these products belonged to 12 different species: Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter spp., Morganella morganiae, Yersinia enterolitica, Yersinia frederiksenii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermitidis, Staphylococcus spp., Clostridium spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogene, and Proteus mirabilis. Strains which could be considered as marker of braised fish sold in the city of Bangangte were Yersinia enterolitica, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia while for braised chicken, they were Yersinia enterolitica, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. The antibiotic susceptibility test performed on these pathogens revealed that they were resistant with 93.75% having multiple antibiotic resistance index values greater than 0.2. We conclude that the microbiological quality of braised products is poor and we suggest to producers to applicate the good hygiene practices. For breeders, we suggest respecting withdrawal periods and the better use of antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shea Press Cake, an Organic Resource of Bioactive Molecules: Biochemical and Phytochemical Profiles of Alcoholic Extracts

Kouakou Abel Boris, Megnanou Rose-Monde, Djoman Ahouman Élisée Silas, Doue Ginette Gladys, Zoue Lessoy Yves Thiery, Akpa Akpro Lath Roland, Kouassi Adjoua Tania, Dembele Tata, Niamke L. Sebastien

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 51-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i230099

Shea press cake is a subproduct of shea butter production. It generally serves as animal food or as fuel, in shea areas. This study demonstrated its ability as edible organic bank of bioactive molecules useful for human. Therefore, the hydroalcoholic extract was screened through GC-MS analysis, and antinutritional compounds were quantified. Chromatogram revealed a wide range of molecules belonging to various famillies. Hence, many amino acids involving EAA (Threonine, Valin and pre-tryptophan) were detected. Peaks related to organic acids like quinic, lactic, malic, citric, gluconic, galactaric, succinic and phosphoric acids were also identified. These acids would be widely exploited in either food or cosmeto-pharmaceutical, or in both industries. Also appeared on the chromatogram, peaks of oses (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and phenolic acids.  Phenolic acids consisted in various catechins and gallic acids which would have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticancer powers. Some other benefic molecules like glycerol and myo-inositol counted among the identified molecules. Above all, shea press cake contents in oxalates (564.66±49.60 mg/100 g DM) and phytates (148.45±0.03 mg/100 g DM) were at far, lower than those of many therapeutic teas. Thus, shea press cake might be considered as a valuable edible bank of bioactive molecules. It could be involved in cosmetics, in drugs and be recommended to consumption as teas leaves, coffee, cinnamon, etc. in prevention to diseases related to metabolic disturbances and oxidative stress (tumor, cancer and degenerative diseases).