Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Bioethanol Production with Thermo Tolerant Yeast Isolates and their Co-Cultures using African Wild Cocoyam as Feedstock

I. Nnamchi Chukwudi, U. Nwachi OkeChukwu, A. Ndubuisi Ifeanyi, C. Amadi Onyetugo

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430105

In this work different ways of optimally producing bioethanol at various pH with thermotolerant yeasts and their cocultures using a non-human edible starchy food as feedstock was examined. African wild cocoyam, Xanthosoma roseum, sourced from abandoned farmlands in Obukpa, Nsukka, Nigeria was used as the substrate, while strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Pichia stipitis were used to ferment them. First the tubers were gelatinized by boiling under pressure above 100oC before hydrolysis with concentrated H2SO4. The hydrolysates were then fermented at 35oC with the thermotolerant yeasts for five days at different pH. Results obtained showed that gelatinized sample of the substrate gave optimum glucose yield when hydrolysed with 1M H2SO4 for 60 minutes. Kluyveromyces marxianus produced more ethanol than Pichia stipitis at all the four fermentation pH values tested. However, optimum ethanol production was obtained when the two yeast strains were used as coculture at pH 4.5. The peak time for ethanol production was 96 hours for the individual yeast cultures while that of their coculture was 72 hours. The results of the study indicated that wild cocoyam is an excellent feedstock for bioethanol production with many advantages including being non-edible, thereby eliminating concerns for food security, and containing high amount of carbohydrate. The study also revealed that fermenting sugar hydrolysates with a coculture of microorganisms during bioethanol production is a more efficient process than using individual cultures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical, Sensory, and Microbial Characteristics of Kindirmou and Pendidam, Two Traditional Fermented Milks of Adamawa - Cameroon, as Affected by the Fermentation Vessels

Noël Mervie Mbiada Tchamba, Bouba Adji Mohammadou, Majesté Pahane, Justine Maiwore, Léopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 25-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430107

Recent data show that the containers traditionally used for fermentation, due to their nature, exchange with the fermented product, the consequence being a modification of the physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties of these products. The objective of this work is to study the influence of the fermentation vessel on the sensory, physicochemical, and microbial properties of kindirmou and pendidam, two traditional fermented milks from Adamawa - Cameroon. To this end, a descriptive test was used to generate the sensory properties of fermented milks in different containers, followed by biochemical (pH, titratable acidity, protein, sugar content, and total phenolic compounds) and microbiological analyses (total aerobic mesophilic flora, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds). Regarding sensory evaluation, samples of kindirmou and pendidam fermented in calabashes have a higher general acceptability than those fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates. The total mesophilic flora and total coliforms were higher than the norm (≥ 6log10) for kindirmou and pendidam regardless of the fermentation vessel. The absence of yeasts and molds is noted in the samples of kindirmou, while they are found at very high levels in the samples of pendidam fermented in the calabash and in the enamel plates ((≥ 6log10). Fecal coliforms are absent in samples of kindirmou and pendidam fermented in the calabash, while they are found in samples fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates. On the physicochemical level, the results obtained showed that the kindirmou fermented in the calabash had the highest soluble protein content (1.47 ± 0.04 g / 100 mL of milk) than those fermented in plastic bucket and enamel plates. The phenolic compounds are present only in the samples of milk fermented in the calabash and the average contents are 93.41 ± 3.04 mg / 100 mL of milk for kindirmou and 111.20 ± 2.01 mg / 100 mL for pendidam.

To conclude, kindirmou and pendidam fermented in calabashes exhibit the best sensory and physicochemical characteristics, and are rich in bioactive compounds than those fermented in plastic buckets and enamel plates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization and Toxicity of Heavy Metal Quinary Mixtures on Enterobacter cloacae Isolate from Nworie River

A. C. Onumajuru, J. N. Ogbulie, C. O. Nweke

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 52-61
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430109

The molecular characterization and toxicity of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Copper (Cu) quinary mixtures on Enterobacter cloacae isolate from Nworie River was investigated. Quinary mixtures of the heavy metals were compounded using fixed ratio (%); and inhibitory effect assessed using inhibition of total dehydrogenase as toxicity response. The mixtures consisted of five heavy metals in the ratios:  Pb (20%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (20%) + Zn (20%) + Cu (20%), Pb (30%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (10%) + Zn (30%) + Cu (10%). Pb (10%) + Cr (10%) + Cd (30%) + Zn (40%) + Cu (10%),   Pb (15%) + Cr (25%) + Cd (25%) + Zn (15%) + Cu (20%), Pb (40%) + Cr (15%) + Cd (5%) + Zn (20%) + Cu(20%). Result obtained showed that toxicity of the metals against the bacterium ranked in the order Cu > Cr >Zn > Pb > Cd. The quinary mixtures Pb (20%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (20%) + Zn (20%) + Cu (20%), Pb (30%) + Cr (20%) + Cd (10%) + Zn (30%) + Cu (10%) and 10%Pb + 10%Cr + 30%Cd + 40%Zn + 10%Cu  showed synergistic interaction, while 15%Pb + 25%Cr + 25%Cd + 15%Zn + 20%Cu and 40%Pb + 15%Cr + 5%Cd + 20%Zn + 20%Cu mixtures were antagonistic and additive respectively. Threshold inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the quinary mixtures was  0.054 ± 0.005mM, 0.053 ± 0.002 mM, 0.038 ± 0.002 mM, 0.077 ± 0.007 mM and 0.058 ± 0.006 mM for the respective mixtures. The toxic index values evaluated for the mixtures exhibited antagonistic, synergistic and additive interaction in the various ratios.  The 16S rRNA and ITSF1 sequences obtained of the isolate showed the phylogenetic placement of the 16S rRNA of the isolate was closely related to Enterobacter cloacae strain DL01 (MH168084). The heavy metals mixtures demonstrated diverse toxicity interaction on the isolate depending on their relative composition, thus poses a threat to aquatic microbial diversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Risk of Exposure of Côte D’ivoire Kola Nuts (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. to Pyrethrinoids and Oragnophosphorus Pesticides

Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Biego Godi Henri, Nyamien Yves Bleouh, Adama Coulibaly

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 62-76
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430110

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exposure to pyrethrinoids and oragnophosphorus pesticides found in Côte d’Ivoire kola nuts.

Study Design: Kola nuts samples were collected from farmers, collectors and urban stores in 3 regions (western, southwestern and eastern) and 2 big storage centers of Côte d’Ivoire.

Place and Duration of Study: Health Department of Hydrology Health and Toxicology, Training and Research Unit of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, running 2017-2020.

Methodology: Pyrethrinoids and organophosphorus residues were qualitatively and quantitatively determined using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem mass spectrometry Agilent 1290 Infinity II LC (LC-MS/MS) and their potential health risks assessed in kola nuts samples from selected regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Health risk estimates were analyzed using Estimated Average Daily Intake (EADI) and Hazard Index (HI) with risk categorized for non-carcinogenic health effects.

Results: A total of 12 pyrethrinoids and 3 organophosphorus were identified and their residues were detected in all the kola nuts samples analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of organphosphorus in all kola nuts was 5±1 µg/kg FW. This level is the same observed for acrinathrin, delatmethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvelerate, flucythrinate, tau-fluvalinate, cyfluthrin et tefluthrin. As for the other pyrethrinoids, the values obtained are 17.2±6.2 µg/kg FW, 25±14.6 µg/kg FW, 30±11.3 µg/kg FW and 39.4±21.2 µg/kg FW, respectively for bifenthrin, cypermethrin, permethrin and cyhalothrin. The average contents determined for each active molecule are all lower than the MRLs fixed for these residues in the kola nuts. As a result, all the Estimate Average Daily Intake (EADIs) determined in adult Ivorians are lower than the corresponding Toxicological References Values (TRVs). Thus, the Hazard Quotient (HQ) calculated for each substance is less than 1.

Conclusion: The risk of adverse effects from consuming kola nuts contaminated with residues of pyrethrinoids or organophosphorus is very unlikely.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trace Mineral, Qualitative Phytochemical Composition and Antidiabetic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Citrullus lanatus Seeds on Diabetic Rats

P. N. Okoroh, M. C. Onuigbo, E. U. Godwin-Nwakwasi, O. C. Chukwuka, Ephraim I. Ekanem

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 77-86
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430111

The trace mineral concentration, phytochemical composition and antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds were carried out using standard methods. The preclinical experimental model was 120 mgkg-1 b.w. (via intraperitoneal) Alloxan induced diabetic rat model, with ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds administered orally at 500mgkg-1 b.w. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids/triterpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates and oils. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that iron had the highest value (8.31mgkg-1), followed by zinc (5.78 mgkg-1), then manganese (4.28 mgkg-1). Selenium concentration was appreciable (0.85 mgkg-1). Ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds significantly (p < 0.05), dose and time dependently reduced blood glucose level, increased body weights of rats and had positive effect on organ weights and organ volume. The results in this study showed that Citrullus lanatus seeds are rich in zinc, selenium, manganese, iron, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids/triterpenoids, and tannins. They may therefore serve as good sources of these trace mineral nutrients and bio actives for nutritional and medicinal purposes relating to diabetes management.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of the Ethnobotanic, Ethnopharmacological and Medicinal Importance of Edible Wild Root Tuber Orchids in Cameroon

Dobgima John Fonmboh, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Ngwasiri Pride Ndasi, Noumo Thierry Ngangmou, Bayaga Herve, Bengyella Louis Tita, Kaba Christian Nubia, Tita Margaret Awah, Ejoh Richard Aba, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 11-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430106

Orchids are well known for their beautiful exotic flowers, and food-flavoring products which make them a resource of great economic importance in the global horticultural and food industries. In Cameroon, orchids are particularly important for their tubers which are used for food and traditional medicine. Orchids are therefore of considerable economic importance, traded within and across the regions and out of the country. Few research works have reported for these orchids in Cameroon exploring mostly identification and taxonomy. It is therefore the responsibility and duty of the local population to valorize the tubers for national use based on their awareness of the hidden potentials for food and medicine. Many people will have eaten orchids without realizing, due to the countless products in international trade that contain the seeds of artificially propagated Vanilla orchids. However, this legal trade is only one example of orchids being used as ingredients in food and drink. One example is the trade in chikanda, a cake made from the ground tubers of terrestrial orchids and consumed in several countries in Central and East Africa. Another product made from the ground tubers of terrestrial species is salep, which is used as an ingredient in hot drinks and ice cream and consumed mainly in Turkey and neighboring countries.

The high exploitation with no biodiversity and conservation strategic plan by indigenes is a call for concern about the sustainability as future existence of these wild edible orchids is highly threatened; reason why orchids are on the international red list. This paper reviews the ethnobotanical and medicinal uses of orchid roots and tubers with a focus on Cameroon. The review highlights some of the areas that require more focus in terms of research and policy interventions, namely identification of all edible orchids, domestication of edible orchids, and trade controls. Focusing on Cameroon, this paper reviews and examines the edible root and tuber orchids developments based on information from some of the work that has been done in Cameroon, the ethnobotanic, ethnopharmacological and medicinal uses of these orchids.

Open Access Review Article

Methods for the Detection and Quantification of Micro and Nanoplastics- A Review

S. Priyanka, G. A. Pallavi, Nayak N. Swathi, Jawali D. Ashita

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 39-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430108

Over the past 35 years, synthetic or semi-synthetic polymers called “plastics” have been widely used across multiple fields due to their low cost, versatility, durability. Plastics have proved to be a boon to mankind. However, overuse of non- biodegradable plastics comes with its own downsides. Despite constant efforts to reuse and recycle plastics, these polymers substantially contribute towards the accumulation of debris hazardous to the environment. Plastic materials are slowly broken into fragments of micro- and nano plastics due to aging and weathering. Micro- and nano plastics were found capable of entering the food chain and hence are viewed as threats. This review paper revolves around methods used for the detection and quantification of micro- and nano plastics. Detection of micro- and nano plastics using methods like Raman spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy, SERS, MALDI-TOF, and machine learning approaches are discussed here. The research efforts carried out in this article aims to further facilitate the R&D initiatives of Jozbiz Technologies.