Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine, Catechin, Epicatechin, Chlorogenic and Caffeic Acid in Cola nitida Dried Nuts from Côte d’Ivoire Using HPLC

Yves Nyamien, Adama Coulibaly, Marie-Pierre Belleville, Eddy Petit, Augustin Adima, Godi Henri Biego

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/34800

Aims: A simple high performance liquid chromatographic analysis (HPLC) for Cola nitida caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic and caffeic acid with a gradient system elution system was developed.

Study Design: Mature kola seeds were collected in October 2014-February 2015 in South of Côte d’Ivoire. Harvested kola nuts were transferred to the laboratory until used in the experiments.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during the year 2016 at European institute of membranes, France.

Methodology: Kola nuts was extracted from mature kola seeds (Cola nitida Schott & Endl.) and the extract was obtained by infusion of kola nut powder in water-ethanol mixture at room temperature. The compounds were separated by of a C18 reversed-phase column with a gradient elution system of binary phase consisted of A (95/5, water-H2O/methanol-MeOH + 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-TFA) and B (100% acetonitrile-ACN + 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-TFA) and an UV detector. All of these compounds were separated within 70 min. The validity of this method was confirmed by their quantitative measurement in kola samples.

Results: The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of these compounds were within the range of 0.098 to 0.47 µg/mL and 0.3 to 1.45 µg/mL, respectively. All the analyses exhibited good linearity with correlations coefficients above 0.9974 and the accuracies for the analyses were 97 – 104%.

Conclusion: Using this analytical method, the bioactive compounds of kola nuts have been determined with satisfactory. The presence of these compounds (caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, cholrogenic acid and caffeic acid) in the extract justifies the industrial interest of kola nuts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enzymatic Activity of Bromelain from Crude Extracts of Crown, Peels and Stem of Pineapples from Different Agro-ecological Zones of Thika Region, Kenya

S. K. Kahiro, J. M. Kagira, N. Maina, S. M. Karanja, F. N. Njonge

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/34314

Bromelain is an enzyme that has great commercial value and is of wide interest in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. In Kenya, large quantities of pineapple by-products are not well utilized although they can be a potential source for bromelain. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of bromelain in crude extract of different parts of pineapples from different agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Thika Region, Kenya. Following extraction, protein concentration and bromelain activity was estimated using standard methods. The activity of bromelain for the crown from the upper (UAEZ), mid (MAEZ) and lower (LAEZ) was 89.57, 101.34, 100.78 U/ml and the activity was significantly lower (p<0.05) in pineapples from UAEZ compared to that the other two zones. For peels, the bromelain activity (U/ml) of pineapple from UAEZ (88.79 U/ml) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that from MAEZ (98.21 U/ml) and LAEZ (97.65 U/ml). The bromelain activity in the stems of pineapple from LAEZ (89.71 U/ml) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to those from MAEZ (85.73 U/ml) and UAEZ (82.27 U/ml). In conclusion, the study shows that pineapple by-products in Kenya can be a good source of bromelain, with higher levels of activity being observed in pineapples from the lower and mid-AEZ.

Open Access Original Research Article

What Separated the Cuticle from the Avian Egg Shell is Unknown: Could it be the Yellow Maize Broth or Heat?

Kingsley Omogiade Idahor, Charity Omon Idahor

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/33961

Aims: Avian egg internal components are sources of nutrients for the developing embryo while the external components especially the cuticle, have physical and biological defence mechanisms to protect the embryo against microbial attack. Consequently, the cuticle could be harvested and used in the production of pharmaceuticals for the treatment and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases as well as feed supplement in human and livestock nutrition. Unfortunately, little is known about the possibility of harvesting and utilizing avian egg cuticle hence, the present serendipitous discovery may serve as a guide to commercial production of avian egg cuticle.

Methodology: Six freshly laid eggs of Black Nera where cooked in an attempt to warm six broken yellow maize cobs and were left in the broth overnight.

Results: It was observed that the cuticles on all the eggs surfaces not submerged in the broth were removed and with gentle rubbing on the surfaces submerged in the broth, more cuticles were harvested. Although, the egg cuticle yield per egg was not determined, it was seemingly indicative that avian egg cuticle could be harvested commercially.

Conclusion: Black Nera egg cuticles could be harvested following cooking of freshly laid eggs left in a broth containing yellow maize overnight. The cooked yellow maize broth was observed to be misty, indicating composition of several substances suspected to be the cause of the egg cuticle’s removal. Although, there are apparent prospects of harvested avian egg cuticle that could be explored, some limitations to its optimal utilization may be contemplated. Hence, research activities geared towards avian egg cuticle nutritional profiles determination, pharmacological trial, composition of cooked yellow maize broth and ways to harvest avian egg cuticles should be painstakingly conducted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anaerobic Digestion of Abattoir Waste: A Combined Strategy for Biogas and Biofertilizer Production, and Waste Management

M. I. Alfa, O. A. Ojeleye, F. B. Wamyil, D. Makolo

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35661

Aims: The study was carried out to estimate the biogas and biofertilizer potential of cattle Paunch and assess the waste treatment efficiency of the Anaerobic Digestion process.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria between March and August 2016.

Methodology: We digested paunch from the rumen of one cow anaerobically for 30 days. Biogas production was measured. The digestate compost was used in comparison with Urea to cultivate maize. The plant heights, Plant diameter, average growth rate, number of cobs and weight of cobs were the performance indicators. The results obtained for each parameter were subjected to a Two Way ANOVA at 95% Confidence level using Minitab 14.2 Statistical software. Physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the feedstock and digestate were used as indicators of the treatment efficiency.

Results: 0.61 m3 of biogas was produced over the retention time while the potential biogas production of one mature cow was estimated at 7.43 m3/year. A total of 14.7 kg of digestate compost was obtained and utilized for the maize production. The results of the ANOVA showed that there was significant difference between the treatments for all parameters with a P-value of .000 in each case. Only plant height showed significant different between plots with a P-value of .035. 53.13% percent reduction in Total solids was achieved by the anaerobic digestion process while the reduction in Volatile solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand, E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were 47.12%, 29.10% 86.75% and 91.28% respectively while the overall efficiency was estimated at 63.86%.

Conclusion: Biogas in good quantity and compost was produced via the anaerobic digestion of cattle paunch and the process achieved over 60% waste treatment efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) and Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) Leaves on Sanitary Quality during the Storage of Maize Grain (Zea mays L.) from Cote D’ivoire

Pierre Ezoua, Konan K. Constant, Amane Didier, Adama Coulibaly, Ysidor Konan, Daouda Sidibe, Olivier Kouame Chatigre, Godi Henri Marius Biego

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35479

The aim of this study was to monitor the sanitary quality during the storage of maize grains for 9 months in polypropylene bags containing leaves of Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens.

It was carried out in the villages of Timbé and Soko respectively in the departments of Katiola and Bondoukou of Cote d'Ivoire in June 2014 to February 2015.

The parameters determined were water activity, total aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and fuminosin B1. The water activity was measured using a Hygrometer with the McCormick method and the mycotoxin assay (AFS, AFB1, OTA, ZEA, FB1) was performed using a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector.

The batches treated with L. multiflora and H. suaveolens recorded the best values compared to the control independently of the study site and of the parameter studied. L. multiflora had a much more marked biopesticidal effect than the leaves of H. suaveolens and the mixture of the two leaves. Indeed, the water activities of the grains varied between 0.80 +/- 0.01 and 0.95 +/- 0.01 for the control batches and the treated batches. For total aflatoxins, the treated batches had maximum levels of 65.48 +/- 0.07 μg/kg and 113.93 +/- 1.23 μg/kg respectively in Timbé and Soko in the departments of Katiola and Bondoukou, while those of the control groups reached 335.98 +/- 2.64 μg/kg and 549.74 +/- 2.81 μg/kg at 9 months of storage. For AFB1, OTA, ZEA and FB1, the treated batches had maximum levels of 4.26 +/- 0.01 μg/kg, 4.87 +/- 0.02 μg/kg, 35.16 +/- 0.06 μg/g and 89.26 +/- 0.48 μg/kg respectively at Katiola and 10.26 +/- 0.11 μg/kg, 7.51 +/- 0.08 μg/kg, 89.25 +/- 0.89 μg/kg and 621.26 +/- 4.73 μg/kg in Bondoukou at 7 months of storage. The recommended standards was respectively 5 μg/kg, 5 μg/kg, 200 μg/kg et 2000 μg/kg for AFB1, OTA, ZEA et FB1 in maize grains. The control batches have very high contents exceeding the recommended standards yet at 4 months of storage.

These results indicate that the treatment of maize with leaves of L. multiflora and H. suaveolens inhibits the activity of insects and molds and allows preserving the quality of the grains with a remanence of up to 7 months. This inexpensive and easy-to-use treatment should be popularized among farmers.