Open Access Minireview Article

Plant Tissue Culture Regeneration and Aseptic Techniques

E. E. Ikenganyia, M. A. N. Anikwe, T. E. Omeje, J. O. Adinde

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/31724

The science or art of growing plant cells, tissues or organs isolated from the mother plant on artificial media is known as plant tissue culture. The merits of plant tissue culture in crop production is that it helps in disease elimination, quick international distribution of genetic resources, germplasm conservation and reduction in quarantine requirements, time and space of regeneration. This paper looks at the materials for in vitro plant tissue culture, different methods of plant tissue culture media preparations, protocols of hygiene and sterilization in plant tissue culture and techniques in plant tissue culture for crop improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability to Heat, Hydrogen Peroxide at Different pH Values and Antioxidant Activity of Terminalia nigrovenulosa Extract

Quang-Vinh Nguyen

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35822

The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of Terminalia nigrovenulosa (T. nigrovenulosa) extract to heating, hydrogen peroxide at pH 4 and pH 7. The changes of total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power were examined. The results indicated that the investigated extract is relatively stable to heating and sterilization conditions at pH 4 but unstable at pH 7. In addition, hydrogen peroxide also adverse effects to total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power are total different at pH 4 and pH 7. It was more stable at pH 4 than that at pH 7. Moreover, extract solution contained higher total polyphenol contents possessed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Thus, polyphenol compounds were responsible for the antioxidant activity of extracts. It indicated that the extract has potent use as an antioxidant additives in the food system, particularly at acid pH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Fruit Wines from Baobab (Adansonia digitata), Pineapple (Ananas sativus) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Tropical Fruits

Peter Isah Akubor

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35643

Aims: The study compared the chemical composition, physicochemical and sensory properties of wines from baobab, pineapple and carrot tropical fruits.

Study Design: The baobab, pineapple and carrot fruits were purchased. Juices were extracted from the fruits, fermented and the qualities of the wines were determined.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in 2016 at Federal University Wukari, Nigeria.

Methodology: Juices were extracted from baobab, pineapple and carrot fruit pulps, ameliorated to 23°Brix with sucrose and seeded with 3% (v/v) Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae). The juices were fermented at 30°C for 21 days. Changes in pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids of the juices during fermentation were assessed.

Results: The pH, soluble solids and specific gravity of the juices decreased while titratable acidity increased with fermentation period. The pH values of the baobab, pineapple and carrot wines are 3.30, 3.52 and 4.4, respectively. The baobab, pineapple and carrot wines have titratable acidities of 0.06, 0.90 and 0.72%, respectively. The soluble solids vary from 3% in pineapple wine to 6°Brix in baobab wine. The volatile acidities of the wines range between 0.050 and 0.113%. The vitamin C contents of the baobab, pineapple and carrot wines are 285, 43.74 and 6.00 mg/100 g, respectively. The beta carotene contents of baobab, pineapple and carrot wines are 0.60, 6.40 and 1880 mg/100 g, respectively. The baobab, pineapple and carrot wines contain 11.0, 12.0 and 7.60% (v/v) alcohol, respectively. The pineapple wine is rated significantly higher (p<0.05) in all the sensory attributes than the baobab and carrot wines.

Conclusion: Baobab, pineapple and carrot and fruits have high potential for wine making. The wines produced from baobab, pineapple and carrot fruit juices. The wines contain high amount of vitamin C and beta carotene. The use of these tropical fruits would conserve foreign exchange expended on the importation of wine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Spermatotoxic Effect of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaf Extract on Male Albino Rats

U. U. Uno, C. M. Okolo, H. O. Ogbe, U. B. Ekaluo, M. E. Benjamin

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35749

Aim: The study examined the effect of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf extract on the sperm toxicity and weight of testes and epididymes in male albino rat models.

Methodology: This study was carried out in the Animal house of the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Calabar and lasted for 65 days. Twenty four male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each using a completely randomized design. Group A served as control and received only water and pellet feed while group B, C and D received 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Ipomoea batatas leaf, respectively.

Results: Results obtained revealed a significant (P= .05) decrease in the weight of epididymes, sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm count while sperm head abnormalities significantly increased in the extract – treated animals. No significant differences were observed in semen pH and weight of testes.

Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that aqueous extract of I. batatas leaf has spermatotoxic effect on the male albino rats in a dose – dependent manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbiological Properties of Syrup and Jam Prepared from Locust Bean Fruit Pulp in Storage

Akubor Peter Isah

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35639

Aim: To evaluate the storage properties of jam and syrup prepared from African locust bean pulp in storage at ambient conditions.

Study Design: The study was carried out in three replications in completely randomized design. Significantly different means were separated by DMART. Significance was accepted at p<0.05.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in 2016 at The Federal Polytechnic Idah, Nigeria.

Methodology: Jam and syrup were prepared from African locust bean pulp and stored in sterile bottles at ambient conditions (30 ± 2°C, 72-82% RH) for 6 months. Changes in the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the stored products were analyzed monthly.

Results: The pH of the stored products was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by storage. However, the total titratable acidity, total sugars, vitamin C and beta carotene decreased significantly (p<0.05) on storage. On the other hand, the soluble solids and reducing sugar contents increased significantly (p>0.05) on storage. The sensory properties of the jam and syrup did not change significantly (p>0.05) on storage. The total plate counts of the jam and syrup decreased significantly (p<0.05) on storage.

Conclusion: The locust bean pulp has the potential for making stable jam and syrup.