Open Access Short Research Article

Microbial Load, Prevalence and Antibiotics Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated From Naira Notes

Mfoniso P. Uko, Imaobong C. Uko, Senyene I. Umana, Maria P. Bassey

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35777

Microbial Load, Prevalence and Antibiotics Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated From Naira Notes

Money is a means of exchange for goods and services. It develops from sales, salaries, ceremonies, compensations, etc. The microbial load, prevalence and antibiotics resistance of bacterial population isolated from the eight Nigerian banknotes were studied. Spread plate method was used to enumerate the bacteria. The microbial load and the antibiotics susceptibility of the bacteria were determined by viable plate count and disc diffusion method, respectively. Nine species of bacteria were isolated in high numbers from the notes most of which were coliforms as well as human pathogens. In composition were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. Shigella sp. Vibrio sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp. and Bacillus sp. The polymer notes had less bacterial load than the paper notes. E. coli and Bacillus sp. were isolated from all the denominations except ₦1,000 and ₦10, respectively. Vibrio sp. and S. aureus occurred on not less than four of the denominations while Salmonella, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas were least in occurrence and were found only on the ₦10 and ₦5 notes. Shigella sp. and S. aureus resisted eight out of ten of the antibiotics tested with the resistance pattern cip-ery-amp-rif-amo-str-nor-chl and cip-ery-gen-amp-rif-amo-str-chl, respectively. Klebsiella showed resistance to ery-gen-rif-amo-str-nor-chl; whereas Proteus sp., Pseudomonas sp., E. coli and Bacillus sp. resisted cip-ery-lev-amo-rif-str, lev-gen-amp-rif-nor-chl, cip-ery-gen-amo-str-chl, and Lev-Gen-rif-amo-str-nor, respectively; Salmonella sp. resisted cip-ery-gen-str-chl. Vibrio sp. resisted only three of the drugs, ery-lev-amp., the only organism showing high sensitivity in the study. The naira notes harbour loads of pathogens with antibiotics resistance mechanisms that confer them considerable resistance to widely used antibiotics. These research findings call for great caution and strong adherence to good hygiene practices when handling money. It also suggests polymer material as a better raw material for currency production than paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processing Methods on the Quality of Biscuit Supplemented with Pigeon Pea Seed Flour

P. I. Akubor

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35720

Aim: To determine the effect of toasting, boiling, germination and fermentation of pigeon pea seeds on the quality of biscuit supplemented with pigeon pea flour.

Design of Study: The experiment was carried out in 3 replications and the data were analyzed by analysis of variance in completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in 2016 at The Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Flours were prepared from raw, toasted, boiled, germinated and fermented pigeon pea seeds. The flours were analyzed for the proximate composition. Each of the flours was used to substitute 10% wheat flour. Biscuits were prepared from the various blends and evaluated for the physical, chemical and sensory properties.

Results: There were no significant differences (P >0.05) among the pigeon pea flour based biscuits in height, diameter and density. The biscuit containing germinated pigeon pea flour was heavier (5.0 g) and occupied more volume (69 cm3) than the other biscuits containing pigeon pea flour where weight and volume ranged from 4.0-4.6 g and 41-50 cm3, respectively. All the pigeon pea flour based biscuits had comparable values with the 100% wheat flour biscuit for the physical attributes. There were no significant differences(p>0.05) among the biscuits containing pigeon pea flours in all the sensory attributes except for color where the biscuit containing germinated pigeon pea flour was rated lower. The pigeon pea flour based biscuits were not significantly different (P>0.05) from the 100% wheat flour biscuit except for color where  the 100% wheat flour biscuit was less preferred. The fat contents of the biscuits containing pigeon pea flours (14.0 - 15.9%) were lower than 17% for the biscuit containing raw pigeon pea flour. All the biscuits containing treated pigeon pea flour except that containing boiled pigeon pea flour had higher amounts of protein, crude fiber and carbohydrate than the biscuit containing raw pigeon pea flour. The Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn contents were higher in the biscuits containing raw pigeon pea flour than in the treated pigeon pea flour biscuit.

Conclusion: Boiling, toasting, germination and fermentation of pigeon seeds had no adverse effects on the physical, chemical and sensory properties of biscuits prepared from pigeon pea flour and wheat flour blends.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sex on Selected Species of Animals Mostly Consumed by Borno State People in Nigeria

J. A. Olusiyi, R. J. Wafar, B. C. Lalabe, L. A. Ademu, K. I. Onaleye

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36060

Effect of Sex on Selected Species of Animals Mostly Consumed by Borno State People in Nigeria

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex on selected species of animals mostly consumed by Borno State people that are predominantly Muslim. In other words, the study was to assess how sex determine slaughtering rate of animals in Borno State with emphasis on four major species (cattle, sheep, goats and camels). The study was conducted for a period of ten (10) years (1982-1991). Abattoir records in the state were obtained from the State Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Reserve. A total of 373,417 cattle were slaughtered within the period under review, with 194,923 males, representing 52.20% and 178,494 females, representing 47.80%. Also, 608,199 goats were slaughtered, with 295,665 males, representing 48.61% and 312,534 females, representing 51.39%. For sheep, 221,047 were slaughtered, with 115,952 males, representing 52.46% and 105,095 females, representing 47.54%. The number of camels slaughtered were 84954 with 46,810 males, representing 55.10% and 38,144 females, representing 44.90%. From the study, it was concluded that more male animals were slaughtered than females in all the species except in goats where the females were slightly higher than the males with adduced reasons for the exception. Goats had the highest numbers of slaughtered rate 608,199, followed by cattle 373,417, sheep 221,047 and camels 84,954 respectively. T-test was used to for data analysis to determine the significant difference between the male and female animals for each species and it was found that significant difference was found only in cattle between slaughtered males and females. It was concluded that more male animals were slaughtered than the females as most females are retained for reproduction and the ratio of males to females is always very low in every breeding herd or farm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Proximate, Mineral and Vitamin Composition on the Leaf and Stem of Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC

N. A. Igboabuchi

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36519

Determination of Proximate, Mineral and Vitamin Composition on the Leaf and Stem of Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC

Proximate, Mineral and Vitamin composition on the leaf and stem of D. velutinum were evaluated to determine its nutritional characters using standard techniques. Data obtained were analyzed using independent sample T-test with SPSS software version 21. All Statistical Analysis was carried out at 0.05 level of significance. Result of the proximate analysis revealed that the leaf had higher percentage of moisture (10.38±0.01%), crude fibre (18.76±0.03%) and carbohydrate (22.10±0.04%), while the stem had higher dry matter (90.56±0.03%), ash (23.45±0.01%), ether extract (11.28±0.01%) and crude protein (18.14±0.03%). In the mineral composition, the leaf contained higher composition of calcium (90.34±0.09 mg/100 g), sodium (87.64±0.06 mg/100 g), magnesium (48.76±0.01 mg/100 g) and iron (10.17±0.01 mg/100 g), while the stem contained higher composition of potassium (115.80±0.01 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (59.90±0.42 mg/100 g). However, in the vitamin analysis, the leaf had higher composition of vitamin A (9.38±0.01 IU/100g) and vitamin B1 (27.61±0.01 mg/100 g), while the stem had higher composition of vitamin B2 (1.78±0.028 mg/100 g), vitamin B3 (6.08±0.01 mg/100 g), vitamin C (19.25±0.00 mg/100 g) and vitamin E (2.43±0.04 mg/100 g). D. velutinum parts (stem and leaf) were found to be rich in nutrients, thus could be exploited for different nutritional uses in enhancing human diet.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Characteristics and Storage Properties of Squash Prepared from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Fruit Juice

Peter I. Akubor

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36474

Aim: To determine the quality of squash prepared from pineapple fruit.

Design of Study: The experiment was carried out in 3 replications in completely randomized design. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Significantly different means were separated using the least significant difference (lsd) test.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried in 2016 at The Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Juice was prepared from ripe pineapple fruits and used to prepare squash. The squash was analysed for physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties. The squash was stored in transparent bottles at ambient temperature (30±2°C) for 6 months. The changes in the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the squash on storage were determined.

Results: The pineapple squash contained 32.2 mg/100g vitamins C, 46° brix soluble solids and 1.56 % total acidity. The squash had pH of 3.7. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the taste, flavour, texture and overall acceptability between the diluted pineapple squash and the commercial pineapple juice. However, the colour of the diluted pineapple squash was preferred to that of the commercial pineapple juice. The pH, total acidity, soluble solids and sensory qualities of the pineapple squash stored for 6 months at ambient temperature(32ºC) were not significantly different (P>0.05) from the fresh squash. However, the vitamin C content of the squash decreased steadily with the storage period. Moulds and yeasts growth did not occur in the squash in storage.

Conclusion: Pineapple fruit is a good candidate for production of squash. Six months storage of the pineapple squash in transparent bottles at ambient temperature did not adversely affect the physiochemical and sensory qualities except for the vitamin C content that decreased on storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Extraction Procedure for Isolation, Identification & Quantification of Piperine from Roots of Piper longum Linn.

Manisha Mohapatra, Uday Chand Basak

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36048

Optimization of Extraction Procedure for Isolation, Identification & Quantification of Piperine from Roots of Piper longum Linn.

Aim: Piperine which is mainly found in the fruits and roots of the Piper longum plant and is a medicinally active bio-molecular compound, used as potential ingredient in preparation of several medicines. This present study was carried out to optimize suitable extraction process  for evaluation of piperine from the roots of Piper longum.

Study design:  Root samples were collected from three different areas of Odisha during the month of August-October 2013. Harvested roots were shade dried and pulverized into fine particles for extraction procedure.

Place and Duration of Study: The total experimentation was carried out at Seed Bank and Seed Biology Division, Regional Plant Resource Centre during the month of October 2013 to          February 2014.

Methodology: Piperine had been extracted through various solvent systems and different extraction procedures viz. water bath and cold stirring method from the roots of P. longum. Isolated extracts were analyzed through spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.

Results: In case of spectrophotometric analysis, piperine content was found within a range of 0.243-0.525% dry weight when extracted through water bath using methanol and ethanol. In case of cold stirrer method, using methanol: water & ethyl acetate: water, piperine content was ranged from 0.208-0.443% dry weight. Through HPLC method, piperine content was found within 0.21-0.49% dry weight when extracted through water bath and 0.156-0.4% dry weight when extracted through cold stirring method.

Conclusion: According to these findings it could be opined that the roots possessed a remarkable amount of piperine. Samples collected from the Keonjhar showed higher piperine as compared to G Udayagiri and Khurda regions. However optimization of extraction methods along with utilization of solvent system prevailed Water bath method to be superior to cold stirring process and methanol was found to be efficient solvent system for extracting higher amount of piperine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phytochemical Composition and Pasting Characteristics of African Locust Bean Pulp Flour, Wheat Flour and Blends

P. I. Akubor, J. O. Onuh, C. O. Orishagbemi

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36478

Aim: The study determined the phytochemical composition and pasting properties of locust bean pulp, wheat flour and the blends.

Study Design: The experiments in carried out in three replications in completely randomized design. The data were analyzed were analyzed by analysis of variance. Significance was accepted at p<0.05.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried in 2016 at The Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Nigeria.

Methodology: Flour was prepared from locust bean pulp and used to substitute 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% wheat flour. The phytochemical composition and pasting properties of the locust bean pulp flour and wheat flour were determined. The pasting properties of the blends were also assessed.

Results: The locust bean pulp flour contained 3.97 mg/100g flavonoids, 8.72 mg/100g carotenoids, 9.81 mg/100g tannins, 8.92 mg/100g saponins, 2.92 mg/100g alkaloids, 0.77 mg/100g glycosides, 2.81mg/100g phytates, 0.88mg/100g oxalates and 0.05 mg/100g hydrogen cyanide. The wheat flour contained 0.5 mg/100g flavonoids, 0.8 mg/100g carotenoids, 1.0 mg/100g tannins, 0.8 mg/100g saponins, 0.5 mg/100g alkaloids, 0.8 mg/100g glycosides, 2.0 mg/100g phytates, 1.0 mg/100g oxalates and 0.09 mg/100g hydrogen cyanide. Wheat flour had significantly higher (P<0.05) peak viscosity (157.83 RVU) and final viscosity (179.33 RVU) than the locust bean pulp flour. The peak viscosity and final viscosity of locust bean pulp flour were -3017 and -2.75 RVU, respectively. Similarly, the trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and setback viscosity of locust bean pulp flour were lower than those of wheat flour. These properties increased in the blends with the level of wheat flour. The pasting temperatures of locust bean pulp flour and wheat flour were 95.05°C and 79.45°C, respectively and increased with the level of wheat flour in the blends. It took locust bean pulp flour 6.13 min to reach peak viscosity and wheat flour 6.20 min. The pasting time decreased as the level of locust bean pulp flour increased in the blends.

Conclusion: The locust bean pulp flour had higher amounts of flavonoids, carotenoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids but lower pasting properties than wheat flour. Based on the pasting properties, the locust bean pulp flour and wheat flour blends would find applications in various baked food products.

The study showed that locust bean pulp flour has potential for use in various food systems.