Open Access Short Research Article

Solid State Fermentation Based Olive Pomace Using Streptomyces Strains: A Preliminary Study

Lamia Medouni-Haroune, Farid Zaidi, Sevastianos Roussos, Véronique Desseaux, Sonia Medouni-Adrar, Mouloud Kecha

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36548

Solid State Fermentation Based Olive Pomace Using Streptomyces Strains: A Preliminary Study

This study represents a preliminary investigation aimed to assess the possibility to recycle and valorize olive pomace by solid state fermentation (SSF) using Streptomyces strains. The olive pomace was collected from an olive pressing factory (super press system) during the olive fruit pressing season. The study was carried out at IMBE, University Aix Marseille-France, between April 2013 and June 2013, and at LMA, University of Bejaia-Algeria in September 2013. Three Streptomyces strains designated S1M3I, S1M3II and S1M3III were cultured on solid state fermentation based olive pomace at 30°C for 10 days, and subsequently, the lignocellulolytic enzyme activities (xylanase, CMCase and laccase), the viability of the microorganisms and the pH of the resulting substrates, were determined. The fermented substrate pH values remained significantly stable (p ˂ 0.05) throughout the fermentation period for the three strains; they were fluctuated between 6.54 and 6.99. The viability of all Streptomyces strains studied, decreased significantly (p ˂ 0.05) during the first four days of incubation, to reach up 0 cfu/mL of viability and 0 U/g enzymatic activities (xylanase, CMCase and laccase activities) were recorded for the three strains. Streptomyces strains, under the experimental conditions (30°C, pH 7 and 75% of moisture), were unable to grow and produce lignocellulolytic enzymes in solid state fermentation based olive pomace due to the mycelial morphology and Streptomyces developmental cycle, no neglect, the environmental factors. These preliminary results suggest that SSF – Streptomyces system is not suitable for conversion of solid waste from olive processing industry and to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory Analysis of Cakes Enriched with Almonds Powders of Terminalia catappa from Cote d'Ivoire

Douati Togba Etienne, Assi Olivier, Aka Boigny, Konan N’guessan Ysidor, Coulibaly Adama, Sidibe Daouda, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36696

Aims: The present work evaluates the sensory properties of nine (9) cakes enriched with almonds powders of Terminalia catappa produced in Cote d’Ivoire.

Study Design: The current study focuses on the sensory properties (descriptive profile and hedonic analysis) of nine (9) cakes enriched with the powders of almonds of Terminalia catappa.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biochemistry department of Biosciences Unit, Félix Houphouet-Boigny University, between October and December 2015.

Methodology: The collected fruits were crushed, their almonds extracted were ground, sieved and the powders obtained were separated according to the size of their particle and their proportion. Nine (9) cakes enriched with powdered almonds of Terminalia catappa have been prepared and subjected to sensory analyses. Sensory analyses were realized to revel the descriptive profile regarding nine sensory descriptors, namely color crumb, ventilation crumb, texture silky, texture crumbly, sweet flavor, fat sensation, wet sensation, aroma and bitter, and then hedonic analysis.

Results: Regarding acceptability, the sensory properties, color, taste, mellow texture, mouth appearance and aroma, differ significantly (p <0.001) from the cakes enriched with almond flour from T. catappa. As for the scores attributed to the different cakes, they are statistically identical. Means are high and range from 6.07 / 9 to 7.13 / 9. At the perception level, the profiles showed significant differences at p˂0,001 for fortified cakes. The cake scores show no statistical difference except for the color of the crumb. At this profile, the color of the crumb was more noticeable in the F3 cake with a score of 8.11 / 10, while the F2 cake showed the lowest score (3.3 / 10).

Conclusion: The almond flour of T. catappa weakly influences the sensory characteristics of the made cakes. It could be used to enrich the cakes and thus allow a better valorization of this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

A SNP Genetic Linkage Map Based on F2 Population Genotyping in Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill

O. F. Adewusi, A. C. Odiyi, B. O. Akinyele

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36044

This study reports a low density genetic linkage map based on 7 x 7 F2 population of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill and constructed with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. 50 SNP markers were used to screen the DNA samples of the soybean out of which only 32 were polymorphic with the samples. These 32 SNP markers were mapped using the Mapchart of WINQTL CART. Vsn 2.5 and the SNPs were distributed on 13 LGs (linkage groups) among the 20 chromosomes of the soybean genome. The total map length was just 2211.46cM with an average marker density of 905.86cM. This SNP based genetic linkage map of soybean could be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important agronomic characters in soybean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Organic Fertilizers Produced Using Locally Formulated Effective Microorganisms on the Growth and Yield Responses of Maize

G. G. Ezeagu, U. J. J. Ijah, O. P. Abioye, B. E. N. Dauda

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36232

Aims: A study was conducted on growth and yield responses of maize to organic fertilizers produced from organic municipal solid wastes (MSW) using locally formulated effective microorganisms (EM-A and EM-B), commercial effective microorganisms (EM-C), Neem-based organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers.

Study Design: The study was laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design with three replicates each.

Place and Duration of Study: Research was sited at Department of Works, Bosso Campus of Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria between July and October, 2016.

Methodology: Maize was planted in the experimental plot and four organic fertilizers as well as one inorganic fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) were applied as treatments. Growth parameters were monitored and recorded weekly while yield parameters were determined after harvest. 

Results: Plant height, leaf number, leaf area, cob length, cob diameter and number of grains per cob differed significantly (P< 0.05). MF,(Soil with inorganic fertilizer, NPK15:15:15), recorded the highest plant height of 259 cm. MB and MC, (organic fertilizers produced with EM-A and EM-B respectively), recorded the highest leaf number of 16, while ME, which contained Neem-based organic fertilizer had the highest leaf area. On yield responses, MD,(organic fertilizers with commercial EM), recorded the best yield with cob length of 20.85 cm, cob diameter of 15.90 cm and a mean number of grains per cob of 623. This was followed by MB with cob length of 18.25 cm, highest cob diameter of 16.30 cm and second highest mean number of grains per cob of 500.

Conclusion: The organic fertilizers demonstrated more adequacies for crop use than the inorganic fertilizers. Although the maize plants where inorganic fertilizers were applied recorded highest plant height, the crop yield was lower than that of organic fertilizers-based treatments. The organic fertilizers produced from solid organic wastes also demonstrated both higher growth and yield responses than the Neem-based organic fertilizers. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Properties of Bacterial Cellulases and Secondary Metabolites of Cellulolytic Bacterial Fermentation of Rice Husks

F. O. Onwuka, F. A. Orji, R. E. Uzeh, E. O. Ugoji

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/35196

The unchecked accumulation of rice husk which is one of the agro-industrial wastes on land serves as source of environmental pollution. This present study showed that submerged fermentation of rice husk for cellulase production and extraction of secondary metabolites was successful using bacterial isolates. The identities of the cellulase hyper-producing strains were Bacillus subtilis strain SDDlas, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CF11, Bacillus cereus strain AT and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The partial purification of cellulase was achieved by Protein precipitation using ammonium sulphate fractionation, and membrane dialyses. The metallic salts CaCl2, MgSO4 and FeSO4 activated cellulase activity whereas CuSO4 inhibited it. The compounds common to the four Bacillus strains at zero hour are: 9,17-Octadecadienal and propanal while secondary metabolites found after seven days fermentation are cis-13-Octadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic and di-isoctyl phthalate. These organic acids are of industrial importance in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.