Open Access Short Research Article

Studies on Physicochemical Analysis and Biodecolorization Potential of Some Bacteria Isolated from Textile Effluent

A. Bello, M. D. Makut, G. O. Ogah

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/38323

Aim: This research work is aimed at studies on physicochemical analysis and biodecolorization potential of some bacteria isolated from textile effluent.

Study Design: This study is designed to isolate and identify species of bacteria from textile effluent. To determine the physicochemical properties of the textile effluent. To use bacteria isolates in biodecolorization of the textile effluent. To determine the physicochemical properties of the textile effluent after treatment with bacterial isolates using methods described by the American public health association. To biodecolorize textile effluents at three different concentrations.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, between September 2016 and October 2017.

Methodology: Samples of textile effluent were collected in clean containers, the physicochemical properties were analyzed using standard methods described by the American Public Health Association and compared with those of national and international standards. These textile effluents were subjected to bacterial decolorization using a decolorization medium, composed of minimal salt medium and textile effluent for a period of 15 days, the %decolorization was measured by checking absorbance of the sample at 72 hours intervals using a UV- spectrophotometer. This was repeated at different concentrations of 20 ml/250 ml, 20 ml/500 ml, and 20 ml/1000 ml (v/v of textile effluent and minimal salt medium).

Results: The bacteria isolates used were Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus. The physicochemical properties of the effluent changed after 15 days of bacterial activity, at best; the pH was reduced from 9.8 to 7.2, color from black to clear/colorless, turbidity from 9,750 to 1,201NTU, TDS from 22,800 to 3,351 mg/L, conductivity from 33,800 to 5,001 µs/cm, sulphate from 975 to 91 mg/L, phosphates from 2.75 to 0.86 mg/L, COD from 3,550 to 195 mg/L, BOD from 1,425 to 78 mg/L. The highest %decolorization was observed to be 53.56% by B. subtilis, followed by 50.95% by P. aeruginosa, and 47.97% by M. luteus.

Conclusion: From this study, it can be deduced that the use of bacteria in biodecolorization has shown great potential and also improves the physicochemical properties of the effluent. However, there is need for further work to be done to validate and improve these findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Analysis, Lipid Profile, Microbiological and Pigment Characterization of Chlorella Dry Powder Produced in a 20 L Agitated Photobioreactor

Luis G. Torres, Luis J. Corzo, Virginie Mimouni, Lionel Ulmann

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/38220

Aims: The aim of this work was to investigate the massive production of Chlorella with food purposes. The second objective was the characterization of the dried product, in terms of proximal, microbiological, pigment and specific lipids analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was carried out mostly in the bioprocess laboratory, UPIBI-Instituto Politecnico Nacional in 2016.

Methodology: The Chorella Powder was cultivated in a 20 L agitated tank. Chlorella was separated from the media, dried and characterized in terms of proximal analysis, lipid profile, microbiological and pigments. Results were compared with a commercial product.

Results: It was feasible the production of Chlorella in a 20 L agitated reactor in outdoor conditions. The calculated value of m was 0.093 day-1. The Chlorella product presented similar characteristics to a commercial product maybe except in the protein content (the commercial Chlorella had a protein contain up to 40% and the home-made product, 21%). The microbiological characterization indicated that both home-made and commercial products are able to be used as human food or supplement. The analysis of pigments by TLC showed the presence of zeaxhantine, b-carotene, chlorophyll a, pheophorbide and pheophitine. The lipids of the home-made product were composed basically of a-linoleic acid (23.4% in molar basis) and palmitic acid (17.5%), followed by linoleic (13.5%) and stearic acids (12%), while the commercial product lipids were composed mainly by a-linoleic (26.9%) and palmitoleic acids (19.1%), followed by palmitic acid (18.9%).

Conclusion: It was feasible the production of Chlorella in a 20 L agitated reactor in outdoor conditions.The home-made product is very similar to the comercial one. It can be used as nutraceutic, providing with proteins, minerals, antioxidant and healthy lipids to the consumer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Consumer Acceptability of Bread Produced with Composite Flour Fermented by Yeast Isolated from Palm Wine and Stale Bread

T. Bolaniran, D. J. Arotupin, O. I. Afolami, O. F. Fasoranti

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/36898

Comparative Study on Consumer Acceptability of Bread Produced with Composite Flour Fermented by Yeast Isolated from Palm Wine and Stale Bread

This study investigated the sensory acceptability of bread produced from composite flour (wheat, air potato and cassava) fermented using yeasts from palm wine and stale bread among prospective consumers at the Federal University of Technology (F.U.T), Akure, Nigeria. Different blend ratios (A-F) of composite flour containing wheat, cassava and air potato flours were formulated; proximate and mineral analysis of representative flours were carried out according to standard procedures set by A.O.A.C., 2012. A descriptive sensory evaluation was carried out to assess bread products (A-F) produced from the different composite flour blends as sensory evaluators were selected by cross sectional simple random sampling techniques. The organoleptic parameters accessed for the bread products include taste, aroma/texture, appeal/appearance and overall consumer acceptability index respectively. Bread products A1-F1 were fermented by yeast isolated from palm wine while products A2-F2 were fermented by yeast from stale bread. Products A1-C2 were adjudged standard controls for Air potato flour (A), Wheat flour (B) and Cassava flour (C) while products D1-F2 were the test bread products of varying formulation blends of the composite flour. All the bread products (A1-F2) were evaluated and compared statistically at p≤ 0.05 level of significance. The Bread products D2 and F1 had the highest overall acceptability (99.90±0.10%) followed by E1 (88.89±1.11%) while D1, E2, and F2 stood (66.67±1.33%) acceptance respectively. The findings of this research revealed realistic potentials of air potato flour supplemented with wheat and cassava flours respectively and the alternative sources of yeasts isolate clones that can be specifically used in fermenting different flour blends for production of widely accepted bread products in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response Surface Optimization of Extraction of Polyphenols and Carotenoids from Sesbania grandiflora Leaves with Ethanol-water System

K. D. P. P. Gunathilake, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, H. P. V. Rupasinghe, O. D. A. N. Perera, H. P. S. Jayaweera

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/38282

Response Surface Optimization of Extraction of Polyphenols and Carotenoids from Sesbania grandiflora Leaves with Ethanol-water System 

Aim: Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction parameters for the extraction of total phenolics and carotenoids from leaves of Sesbania grandiflora with ethanol-water based system.

Method: The effects of solvent concentration (30-100%), extraction temperature (30-60°C) and extraction time (30-90 min) on the recovery of total phenolics and carotenoids were investigated. Results and Discussion: The constructed models were adequate to explain the behavior of the extraction system and predict the responses, total phenolics (R2 = 88.53%) and carotenoid (R2 = 90.60) contents. The optimum extraction conditions of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time for phenolics, were 46.6%, 70.2°C, and 110.5 min and for carotenoids, the optimum parameters were 100%, 70.2°C and 110.5 min, respectively. The optimal predicted contents for total phenolics (7.74 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/ g DW) and carotenoids (4.32 mg/g DW) values in the extracts were agreed with the experimental values obtained with optimum extraction conditions for each response.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Micro/Macro Elements and Heavy Metals during Anaerobic Treatment of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW)

H. O. Stanley, C. B. Ogbonna, G. O. Abu

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AJB2T/2017/37831

In this study, the dynamics of macro and micro elements (including heavy metals) during anaerobic treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated to determine the effect of seasonal variation on the performance of the treatment process. The first anaerobic digestion (ADH) process was conducted during the dry season (between March and May, 2016) while the second anaerobic digestion (ADC) process was conducted during the rainy season (between July and early October, 2016). OFMSW was collected and subjected to anaerobic treatment inside one-stage 250 litre – capacity batch-type mesophilic reactors with useful volume of 230 litres, substrate (OFMSW) concentration of 5.53%, rumen juice as the source of microbial inoculum and a retention time of 84 days. To monitor the treatment process, temperature, pH, macro and micro elements including heavy metals were estimated with time. Result showed that average process temperature inside the reactors (ADH and ADC) during the dry and rainy season ranged from 29.7ºC to 39.3ºC and 26.8ºC to 30.8ºC respectively after 84 days. Inside the reactors (ADH and ADC), cumulative biogas increased to 34.8 L and 26.5 L while nickel, iron and cobalt ranged from 6.80 to 1.52 mg/l and 6.62 to 0.93 mg/l, 21.40 to 1.25 mg/l and 23.70 to 5.7 mg/l, and 2.14 to 0.63 mg/l and 2.21 to 0.64 mg/l respectively after 84 days. Cadmium, chromium and mercury ranged from 2.91 to 0.05 mg/l and 2.64 to 1.1 mg/l, 1.84 to 0.06 mg/l and 1.81 to 0.8 mg/l and 0.58 to 0.02 mg/l and 0.57 to 0.08 mg/l respectively after 84 days. This suggests that anaerobic digestion could be applied to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in biodegradable wastes to some degree before the wastes can be disposed into the environment. Nevertheless, it appears that the anaerobic digestion (ADH) process conducted during the dry season may have performed better than the anaerobic digestion (ADC) process conducted during the rainy season in terms of reducing the concentration of these elements as was biogas production with time.