Biochemical features of nontraditional plants such as Columbus grass, Apple Earth, were studied on Southern Aral Sea’s conditions. Changing of important organic matters concentration in those plants were studied and monitored. Also specific characters, appearance and constitution of studied plants were listed and photos of those were given as well.
A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to comparatively investigate the soil and air mycoflora of selected densely populated locations within the Federal University of Akure (F.U.T.A) Campus. Isolation of fungi from soil and air was done for each sample point using pour plate and exposed air techniques respectively according to specified World Health Organization standards. The mean total mycelial counts (TMC) for soil (10.75±1.25 Sfu/ml) was significantly (p<0.05) different from that of air (6.25±1.75 Sfu/ml). Fungal isolates were identified by comparing the macro-morphological (cultural) and micro-morphological characteristics of different isolates obtained with the available literature. A total of 15 different fungal isolate types were identified from both soil and air across the sampling points, they include: Fusarium avenaceum, Byssochlamys nivea, Candida albicans, Engyodontium album, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria infectora, Chaetomium globosum, Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor racemosus, Acremonium strictum, and Aspergillus parasiticus respectively with Aspergillus niger been the highest occurring fungal isolate of public health importance. The possible health implications of the findings of this study were fully discussed in relation to sample points where each isolate predominantly occurred as potential risks or threat of mycotoxicoses, subcutaneous mycoses and systemic mycoses in each sample point were fully discussed. Proper waste disposal habits are however recommended across different sample locations to reduce potential risk incidence of mycotic infections and food poisoning among respondents.
In vitro Plant Propagation from Shoot Tip Explants for Commercial Cultivation and Biofuel Production
In vitro propagation was achieved from shoot tip explants of 4 months old bioenergy crops, Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and castor bean (Ricinus communis) plants. In both genotypes, propagation from shoot tip was evaluated on a range of concentrations of Benzyl adenine (BA) combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as 2.22 μM BA and 4.9 μM IBA, 1.11 μM BA and 0.48 μM IBA, 0.42 μM BA and 0.46 μM IBA and 0.44 μM BA and 0.44 μM IBA. Higher regeneration potential that direct adventitious shoot induction was recorded highest in Jatropha on MS medium with 2.22 μM BA and 4.9 μM IBA while in castor bean on MS medium with 1.11 μM BA and 0.48 μM IBA. Regenerated shoots, rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with IBA (0.5 μM). Following simple hardening procedures, the in vitro raised plants were transferred to soil for commercial cultivation and grown to maturity for seed production from which crude oil were obtained.
Sawdust has been neglected over the years in biofertilizer synthesis due to high lignin and cellulose content which are recalcitrant to biodegradation. This research has demonstrated ways of breaking down sawdust through the isolation of thermotolerant Actinomycetes. Six genera of Actinomycetes were isolated from landfill and compost extracts, three genera of the isolates was found to be Streptomycetes spp, while two genera was found to be Rothia spp and one Actinomadura spp. The potential of these organisms in degrading sawdust was examined. Results showed that all the organisms has a great potential of degrading sawdust with Actinomadura spp been the most effective degrading agent based on its high percentage degradation of cellulose (12.31%) followed by Rothia spp (9.90%). Results of the biodegradability analysis also showed that the organisms has the capacity to make sawdust amenable to biodegradation with up to 70.43% of sawdust been biodegradable after 35 days of incubation with Actinomadura spp. The results of these investigations have demonstrated that the consortium of these organisms has the capacity to degrade sawdust during composting.
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Property of Various Extracts from the Medicinal Plant Paronychia argentea L.
Aim: Paronychia argentea L. is used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases in Algeria especially kidney stones. This study focused on the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of these plant extracts.
Methods: The different extracts were prepared using solvents of increasing polarity, and theirs total polyphenols and flavonoids contents were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activities of Paronychia argentea extracts (PAE) were assessed by their inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase (XO) and their scavenger ability on superoxide radical (O2•-) generated by this enzyme.
Results: The phytochemical investigation of the plant extracts showed that the ethyl acetate extract (EaE) has the highest concentration of total polyphenols and flavonoids, followed by chloroform (ChE) and crud (CE) extracts. Results of the antioxidant activity revealed that all PAE were effective in both XO inhibiting and superoxide radical scavenging, with the following order for the two assays: ChE > EaE > CE.
Conclusion: This study provided evidence that PAE had interesting antioxidant potential which was confirmed using two enzymatic methods. Therefore, this plant could be used to treat gout and lot of diseases, where inhibition of XO and scavenging of superoxide radical are necessary.