In vivo Germination of Encapsulated Orchid Seeds of- Epidendrum radicans
The orchid seeds are naked embryos without any nutritive tissue to support them for germination in vivo. In nature, they germinate symbiotically when they come in contact with mycorrhiza found in the mother root tufts. Orchid capsule consists of hundreds or thousands of seeds which go waste without germination. The role of mycorrhiza is to convert starch into simple glucose which provides nutrition for the germinating seeds. Orchid breeders use in vitro technique to culture the orchid seeds with various growth hormones. An attempt was made to grow orchid seeds in vivo by encapsulating them with calcium alginate similar to the production of synthetic seeds. Epidendrum radicans seeds were encapsulated with calcium alginate. The sodium alginate gel was prepared using Vacin and Went medium supplemented with 100 ml L-1 CW, 2 mg L-1 NAA, and 20 g L-1 sucrose. The encapsulation was carried out aseptically and the seeds were successfully germinated in the sterilized soilrite medium.
Bioremediation of Endocrine Disruptive Chemicals: The Power of Microbial Enzymes
Microbial enzymes have been established as a powerful tool in bioremediation. In this review, applications of microbial enzymes in degradation of endocrine disruptive chemicals are explained. Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) are a number of pollutants reported bringing negative impacts on human being and wildlife. Exposure to EDCs may cause effect on endocrine system thus detrimental to the health eminently on the developmental and reproductive abnormalities. Physical approaches such as ozonation, activated carbon, nanofiltration have been implemented to remove EDCs in waste water. Over the past decade, bioremediation has been a preference method in EDCs degradation due to its environmental friendly approach. Lignin-modifying enzymes; LMEs have been the attractive candidates in EDC treatment due to their characteristics such as broad selectivity in substrate affinity and ability to degrade either complex, individual pollutants or low water solubility compounds. Usage of microbial enzymes either by using the whole organism or free enzymes has been introduced in water treatment. Current technology by immobilizing enzymes to certain matrix allow the enzymatic recycling process thus giving an advantage in operational cost.
Assessments of Medicinal Plants Used in Treatment of Various Ailments in Kano City, Nigeria
Aim: The aim of this research is to conduct an Ethno botanical assessments of medicinal plants used in the treatment of various ailments in Kano metropolis, Nigeria
Methodology: A systematic survey of medicinal plants, used in the treatment of different diseases in Kano metropolis involving 66 participants (30 herbalists, 18 old people with knowledge of traditional medicine, 6 Botanists and 12 traditional medicine users) was conducted from February 2016 to August 2016 using simple structured questionnaire.
Results: The result revealed that 79 different plant species belonging to 48 plant families are used for curing various ailments in Kano metropolis. The most frequently used herbs are from the families used as medicinal plant in Kano Metropolis according to this study includes Fabaceae, Moraceae, Combretaceae, Rubiceae and Anacardiaceae. The ailments mostly mentioned in the application of these medicinal plants/preparations included; pile, typhoid fever, pains, cancers, cough/colds, rheumatism, diabetes and sexual dysfunction. The study of habits & habitats of the materials collection showed that 52% of the medicinal plant species are trees and mostly found in the wild (62%). The survey also revealed that the leaves are the major parts used for herbal preparation accounted for 45%. The main methods of preparation are mostly decoction with occasional administrations of infusions & pounded plant parts.
Conclusion: Plants continue to provide a source of hope for novel drug compounds as they have made large contributions to human health and well-being.
Herein, we investigated the effects of solvents on the phytochemical components, antioxidant activities, and cytotoxicity of Mulberry mistletoe leaves. An FT-IR method was performed to identify the essential functional groups of crude powder. Total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid content, and total flavonoids content were measured. Further, in vitro antioxidant activities were performed using different assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating activities, reducing power, total antioxidant capacity. The cytotoxicity of each extract was tested using the MDCK cell line. The results showed that different solvents showed a significant difference in phytochemical contents, antioxidant activities, as well as cytotoxicity. We found that pure water extraction had remarkably higher phytochemical values and greater antioxidant activities than pure ethanol or the water-ethanol system. In this sense, pure water may thus be considered a suitable solvent based on its acceptability for human consumption without toxicity, low cost and environmental friendliness.
Typhoid fever is caused by bacterium called Salmonellaenterica serovar typhi (often referred to as S. typhi). It has become rare developed countries, but remains an important cause of enteric disease in developing countries, resulting in an estimated 216,000 – 600,000 deaths per year, predominantly in children. Humans are the only source of infection of typhoid fever and transmission of S. typhi is by the fecal-oral route through contaminated water or food, prevention measures need to include water and sanitation improvements, as well as health education. Typhoid fever can be effectively treated with antibiotics, but growing rates of antibiotic resistance in many regions are making this treatment more difficult and costly. Given these facts, it seems necessary to consider a comprehensive approach to prevention of this disease that combines targeted vaccination as a short- to medium-term measure, combined with the long-term solutions of water and sanitation improvements and elevated living standards. To combat and to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by typhoid fever, many preventive measures and strategies have been employed, the most important being vaccination. In recent years, many Salmonella vaccines have been developed including live attenuated as well as DNA vaccines and their clinical trials have shown encouraging results. However, with the increase in antibiotic resistance, the development of potent vaccine candidate for typhoid fever is needed.