Studies on Decolourization of Textile Effluent Using Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Textile Effluent
Aim: This research work aimed to Study the decolourization of Textile Effluent Using Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated From Textile Effluent.
Study Design: This study was designed to isolate and identify Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from textile effluent. To use bacterial isolates in decolourization of the textile effluent individually and in the consortium (both isolates together) at three different concentrations.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, between August 2016 and November 2017.
Methodology: Textile effluent was collected in a screw-capped sterilized bottle from the textile mill discharge point. The bacterial species of choice were isolated from the textile effluent and were subjected to bacterial decolorization individually and then in consortium using a decolorization medium, composed of minimal salt medium and textile effluent for a period of 12 days, the %Decolorization was measured by checking absorbance of the sample at 72hours intervals using a spectrophotometer (user 720 nm wavelength). This was repeated at different concentrations of 20 ml/250 ml, 20 ml/500 ml, and 20 ml/750 ml (v/v of textile effluent and minimal salt medium).
Results: Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to have significant potential to decolourize the dye effluent. Bacillus subtilis produced high decolourization activity after 12 days with 58.78% at 20 ml/750 ml concentration. Whereas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced 53.46% at 20 ml/750 ml concentration after 12 days period of incubation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtitles in consortium produced the highest decolourization potential of 75.56% at concentration 20 ml/750 ml after 12 days period of incubation.
Conclusion: This study shows that Bacillus subtilis have comparatively higher decolourization potential than Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria in consortium exhibited the highest ability in the decolorizing process than the individual isolates. However, there is a need for further work to be done to validate and improve these findings.
(Nypa fruticans) Ash and Rabbit Droppings for Enhanced Ex situ Bioremediation of Crude Oil
Crude oil exploration, production and refinement in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have resulted in the contamination of soil. The study was aimed at exploring the potential of Nypa fruticans ash (NFA), and rabbit droppings (RD) as biostimulants for enhanced ex-situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) in Yorla. A microcosm was set up in three sets of containers, each having a surface area of 328 cm2 and a volume of 1651 cm3. Exactly 300 g COCS was weighed into each container (Sets A-C). SetA contained 150 g RD; SetB had 150 g NFA while SetC was not amended to serve as a control (CT). Monitoring was done for 5weeks (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) with all parameters measured at an interval of 1week. SetA had hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) and hydrocarbon utilizing fungal (HUF) counts reduced from 1.76x104 to 0.55x103 CFU/g and 1.43x103 to 0.32x102 CFU/g respectively after four weeks, while SetB had HUB reduced from 1.76x105 to 1.42x104 CFU/g and HUF reduced from 1.43x103 to 0.51x103 CFU/g by week 4. In SetA, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduced by 57.9% while in SetB, it reduced by 39.6% and SetC by 0.59%. TPH reduced significantly (p<0.05) by week 5 in the order: RD>NFA>CT. Bacteria isolated included Pseudomonas fluorescens, Micrococcus roseus, Escherichia coli and Bacillussubtilis while the fungi counterpart were Aspergillus sp., Candida lipolytica, Penicillium sp.and Rhizopus sp. Reductions in physicochemical parameters could be due to their utilization by oil degraders. Next line of action will be to apply this technology in situ for enhanced remediation of COCS.
Synthesis and Characterisation of Biodiesel from Cameroon Palm Kernel Seed Oil
Aims: This study was aimed at synthesizing and characterizing a biodiesel from Cameroon palm kernel oilseed.
Study Design: Synthesis was carried out on purified kernel oil by trans-esterification using methanol in basic medium.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory work was effectively carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering (Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria) in the early part of the year 2017.
Methodology: Oil was extracted from Cameroon palm kernel seed, which constitutes an agricultural industrial waste, by mechanical expression, was purified and analysed. Palm kernel oil (PKO) biodiesel was synthesised by trans-esterification in methanol with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a base at the mass ratio PKO to methanol to KOH of 100:20:1.
Results: The yield of optimised synthesis of biodiesel was 97%, with a useful by-product (glycerol) which has potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic and engineering applications. PKO biodiesel was analysed using UV and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Biodiesel had the following physical characteristics: specific gravity 0.884 g/mL, ASTM colour 1.5, viscosity at 40ºC 4.9080 cSt, viscosity at 100ºC 1.7914 cSt, cloud point 17ºC, pour point 0ºC, flash point 50ºC, aniline point 90ºF, cetane number 28, and diesel index 25. The following chemical parameters were obtained for the synthesized PKO Biodiesel: sulphur content 0.0328% w/v, acid value 0.4488 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid (FFA) content 0.2244 mg KOH/g, iodine value 7.36 mg I2/g, saponification value 168.30 mg KOH/g, ester value 154.84 mg KOH/g, hydroxyl value 51.89 mg OH/g and peroxide value 3.20 meq/kg.
Conclusion: These results of physical and chemical characterisation of PKO biodiesel fell in the range reported in the literature for biodiesel and were close to those of diesel fuel.
Investigating the Effectiveness between Using Pseudomonas fluorescens and Its Biosurfactant in Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil
Aim: To investigate the effectiveness of using Pseudomonas fluorescens and its biosurfactant in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.
Study Design: (1) Culturing Pseudomonasfluorescens for biosurfactant production using an optimized glycerol-mineral salt medium. (2) Separately using the biosurfactant and the bacterium to remediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, (3) Determining the extent of hydrocarbon removal between the use of the bacterium and its biosurfactant.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Between February 2017 and July 2017.
Methodology: Pseudomonasfluorescens was cultured for biosurfactant production using a glycerol-mineral salt medium with optimized parameters deciphered from a previous study. About 100 ml of the biosurfactant produced was added to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil in a bioremediation setup. Also, 100 ml broth culture of the bacterium was added to hydrocarbon contaminated soil in another bioremediation setup. A control was also set up. The bioremediation and control setups were monitored for Total heterotrophic bacterial population, Hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) population, pH, and total hydrocarbon concentration.
Results: Biosurfactant production was indicated by a reduction of the surface tension of the culture broth from 60.04 mN.m-1 to 30.64 mN.m-1. Addition of the biosurfactant to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil resulted in about 69% decrease in hydrocarbon concentration. On the other hand, the addition of the bacterium resulted in about 66% decrease in hydrocarbon concentration. There was about 50% decrease in hydrocarbon concentration in the control setup. The HUB population in the bioremediation setup in which biosurfactant was added ranged from 1.70 × 104 - 4.80 × 106 cfu.g-1, while the HUB population in the setup in which the bacterium was added ranged from 2.17 × 104 - 1.35 × 106 cfu.g-1. The HUB population in the control setup ranged from 6.33 × 103 - 9.15 × 104 cfu.g-1.
Conclusion: Though the extent of hydrocarbon attenuation via the use of biosurfactant was higher than that using the bacterium, analysis of variance of the results showed that there is no significant difference between the use of the biosurfactant producing bacterium and its biosurfactant in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted the soil.
Phytochemical and Antifungal Efficacy of Different Parts of Moringa oleifera Plant Extracts
Antifungal potential of Moringa oleifera and the determined Phyto-consituents of its parts in different solvents has shown its prowess economically. Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) seed, leaf and stem bark were evaluated for antifungal efficacy and phytochemical constituents. Phytochemical screening of Moringa oleifera and its antifungal efficacy against Aspergillus flavus was investigated using poison food technique method. Result of the phytochemical screening exposed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, reducing sugar, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Reducing sugar and steroids were present in all the extract; cardiac glycoside was present in all the extract except stem bark extracts. The antifungal assay result shows that M. oleifera leaf ethanol leaf extract exhibited broad spectrum activity against the test organism. The physical characteristics of the Moringa is an express indication of the presence of acidic compounds which could importantly serve as a natural preservative of fruits. Studies can be carried out on the isolation, purification, and characterization for further expository of the active ingredients.